Monday, November 30, 2020

Tuxedo Shirt

Tuxedo Shirt  

A tuxedo is an ensemble (or outfit) of clothing which includes a white dress shirt, a bow tie, dress pants, a tuxedo suit jacket (sometimes called a dinner jacket), leather dress shoes, and sometimes a vest or cummerbund, top hat and gloves. In European countries, this outfit is called black tie. Many men wear this outfit in Western countries on formal occasions like a marriage ceremony or a fancy party or dance.

The white dress shirt is usually made of cotton or linen. A dress shirt has a stiff collar and it is ironed before it is worn. A bow tie is usually made of silk or polyester, and it is usually black or white. Dress pants are made of wool or polyester, and they are ironed before they are worn. A tuxedo suit jacket is usually made of wool or polyester. Suit jackets have a collar, pockets, and a silk or polyester lining. Leather dress shoes are usually made of dark-colored leather which is polished. Sometimes, a person wearing a tuxedo will also wear a sleeveless vest with buttons in the front, a black top hat, and white gloves.

Some men wear a tuxedo for their jobs, such as symphony orchestra musicians or waiters in expensive restaurants.

Since most men do not wear tuxedos very often, they rent them when needed instead of buying them. Sometimes, men's tuxedo vests and ties match the dress of the woman he is with. They are mainly worn to big events such as weddings, dinner parties or some sort of smart dressed do.

Tunic Shirt

Tunic Shirt

A tunic is a garment for the body, usually simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the knees. The name derives from the Latin tunica, the basic garment worn by both men and women in Ancient Rome, which in turn was based on earlier Greek garments that covered wearers' waists.

Indus valley civilization figurines depict both women and men wearing a tunic-like garment. A terracotta model called ''Lady of the spiked throne'' depicts two standing turban-wearing men wearing what appears to be a conical gown marked by a dense series of thin vertical incisions that might suggest stiffened cloth. A similar gold disc in the al-Sabah Collection from the Kuwait National Museum appears to be from the Indus Valley civilization depicts similar conical tunic-wearing men holding two bulls by their tails under a pipal tree shown in an Indus-like mirror symmetry. A mother goddess figurine from the National Museum new Dehli shows a female wearing a short tight tunic.

Around 1830, small boys began to be dressed in sashed or belted tunics over trousers, a fashion which replaced the earlier skeleton suit.

During the Crimean War in the 1850s, it was realized that the waist length jackets which had been worn by British soldiers since Napoleonic times were unsuitable for fighting in winter conditions. A new longer jacket was introduced which reached down to the mid thigh and this was named the 'tunic' after the 'tunica' of the intrepid ancient Roman soldier. This type of jacket soon became standard for most armies.

In Western culture, its use continues primarily in a religious and uniform context. It is the primary garment worn by the clergy and members of religious orders. The religious tunic reaches to the feet and was the source of the clerical cassock, as well as, in its liturgical form, the alb, after the long tunic worn by Roman citizens. 'Tunic' is also the name often given to the high-collar uniform coat worn by military and police personnel. Light feminine garments, especially for sports or exercise, usually only coming down to mid-thigh, are also called tunics.


Sweat Shirt

Sweat Shirt  

Sweatshirts are the fashion world’s blessing to everyone who a) picks comfort over trends and b) is into any kind of fitness routine. We’ll jump to the technicalities of sweatshirt fashion in a bit, but for now let’s talk about how this simple item of clothing makes our life so much easier. We assure you, after reading on about what are sweatshirts, in an article that’s solely dedicated to them; you’ll never go back to boring and less practical workout wear again. A sweatshirt outfit can make you look simple but that’s not how they make you feel. Why? Because the insides are made of fleece and it is brushed to make it softer. Fleece is a soft, warm fabric that is similar to wool, and is used as lining. Sweatshirts are loose or oversized, never fitted. Even though they come under types of sweaters, they are not a sweater. Just the opposite, actually. Meaning, you can wear a sweatshirt to workout but you can’t wear a sweater until winter arrives. That’s the major difference between a sweater and sweatshirt. Sweatshirts are one of the many clothes worn in summer. Some may refer to sweatshirts as hoodie, too. The material is thick cotton and sweatshirts have lining inside them to absorb moisture. They’re made to cover your torso and arms so that any sign of excess moisture that interrupts your workout is ruled out.

Referring to sweatshirts as only workout wear items is a thing of the past. Now, they’re a part of casual wear and street wear genres too. If you’re wondering how to wear sweatshirts for everyday purposes, then look no further. There are a number of ways to ace the sweatshirts fashion. Wearing a cute little skater skirt with a contrasting sweatshirt and a pair of ankle boots can make for an adorable brunch outfit. Shop for stylish mens sweatshirt if you’re going out with the guys to do whatever it is that guys do! Pair it with slim fit jeans and your best pair of sneakers. While a sweatshirt and shirt together may sound like a lot of layers, it could become a go-to choice for guys over the winters. Same goes for a t shirt over sweatshirt that can make a dull t shirt look livened up. Don’t forget to accessorize, as it could earn you a few brownie points and compliments from your friends!

The most basic difference between a sweater and a sweatshirt is the way they’re made. A sweater is crocheted or knitted, whereas a sweatshirt is not. A sweatshirt is made with heavy cotton. Sweaters are meant to keep you warm in the winters. A sweatshirt is also meant to keep you warm, although that’s not its only purpose. Along with keeping one warm, they also absorb sweat like we talked about earlier in the article. This makes them a go-to choice for athletes and fitness enthusiasts. Sweaters are made of lightweight material, so they don’t absorb sweat but just keep you warm.

Talking about seams, a sweatshirt’s are serged and a sweater has seams that are finished by weaving them together. This prevents them from unraveling. The back and inside of the sweatshirt is brushed carefully to make it softer and comfier. This is called fleece. A sweater on the other hand, is already comfy and soft by the way it is designed and constructed. In most good quality sweatshirts, the fabric on the inside and outside of the sleeve can be pulled apart. This suggests that it has two layers. A sweater has just one layer throughout. A sweatshirt does not have a front opening, but a sweater may or may not have one depending on the design or style. Styling sweaters is super easy, but so is styling sweatshirts!

Sweatshirts fashion is soon becoming a style everyone is willing to adorn. In a world that is always on fast forward, it’s a boon to have something that keeps you feeling A-OK throughout the day. What is sweatshirt if not synonymous to comfort? Versatile, stylish and breezy. If that doesn’t convince you to buy one, then we don’t know what will!

Polo T-shirt

Polo T-shirt 

A polo T shirt is a form of  T shirt with a collar, a placket neckline with two or three buttons, and an optional pocket. Polo T shirts should be buttoned to the top and are usually short sleeved; they were used by polo players originally in India in 1859 and in Great Britain during the 1920s.

Polo T shirts are usually made of knitted cotton (rather than woven cloth), usually a piqué knit, or less commonly an interlock knit (the latter used frequently, though not exclusively, with pima cotton polos), or using other fibers such as silk, merino wool, synthetic fibers, or blends of natural and synthetic fibers. A dress-length version of the   T shirt is called a polo dress.

History of the polo T shirt

At the end of the 19th century, outdoor activities became important for the British ruling class. Jodhpur pants and polo  T shirts became part of the wardrobe for horse-related sports.The two garments were brought back from India by the British, along with the game of polo. The original polo T shirts were more like contemporary button down sport T shirts. They were buttoned, long- or short-sleeved  T shirts, distinguished by being made of more rugged material than dress  T shirts and featuring button-down collars to prevent the collars from flapping around when riding on horseback. For this reason, Brooks Brothers markets its line of oxford cloth button down  T shirts as "Original Polo."

The polo  T shirt is one of the most fundamental pieces of menswear. With beginnings on polo fields of the mid-19th century, the polo T shirt has evolved from a formal piece of sports uniform to a ubiquitous, preppy sportswear classic. Like most garments, the design of the modern day polo T shirt was spawned from utilitarian needs that trickled into mainstream fashion with the help of society’s most respected individuals.

A polo  T shirt is one of the most versatile  T shirts any man can own. It’s an ideal summer staple, but how should it fit, what should it be made of and where are the best places to buy polo T shirts? Every gentleman should have at least a few polo  T shirts in his wardrobe. From sporting attire to leisurewear, polo T shirts can be paired with many wardrobe items such as chinos, shorts, seersucker, and Madras. Perfect for the preppy gentleman, it is a common sight on golf courses, tennis courts, beaches and around town for leisurely strolls through the shops and an al fresco meal at a quaint bistro.

Western Shirt

Western Shirt  

Western wear is a category of men's and women's clothing which derives its unique style from the clothes worn in the 19th century Wild West. It ranges from accurate historical reproductions of pioneer, mountain man, Civil War, cowboy and vaquero clothing to the stylized garments popularized by singing cowboys such as Gene Autry and Roy Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s. Western wear can be very informal, with a t-shirt and blue jeans forming a basic ensemble, or it may consist of tailored formal garments with western accents. At minimum, western wear generally incorporates a cowboy hat, a leather belt, and cowboy boots.

A Western shirt is a traditional item of Western Wear characterized by a stylized yoke on the front and on the back. It is generally constructed of chambray, denim or tartan fabric with long sleeves, and in modern form is sometimes seen with snap pockets, patches made from bandana fabric, and fringe. The "Wild West" era was during the late Victorian era, hence the direct similarity of fashion.

A Western dress shirt is often elaborately decorated with piping, embroidered roses and a contrasting yoke. In the 1950s these were frequently worn by movie cowboys like Roy Rogers or Clayton Moore's Lone Ranger.Derived from the elaborate Mexican vaquero costumes like the guayabera and the battleshirts worn by many Confederate soldiers, these were worn at rodeos so the cowboy could be easily identifiable.Buffalo Bill was known to wear them with a buckskin fringe jacket during his Wild West shows and they were fashionable for teenagers in the 1970s and late 2000s.[9]

Another common type of Western shirt is the shield-front shirt worn by many US Cavalry troopers during the American Civil War but originally derived from a red shirt issued to prewar firefighters. The cavalry shirt was made of blue wool with yellow piping and brass buttons and was invented by the flamboyant George Armstrong Custer. In recent times this shield-front shirt was popularised by John Wayne in Fort Apache and was also worn by rockabilly musicians like the Stray Cats.

In 1946, Papa Jack Wilde put snap buttons on the front, and pocket flaps on the Western shirt, and established Rockmount Ranch Wear.

Saturday, November 28, 2020

Sleepwear Shirt

Sleepwear  Shirt  
A nightgown, nightie or nightdress is a loosely hanging item of nightwear, today almost exclusively worn by women. Sleepwear  shirt
A nightgown is made from cotton, silk, satin, or nylon and may be decorated with lace appliqués or embroidery at the bust and hem.
A nightgown may have any neckline, and may have sleeves of any type, or be sleeveless, and any shoulder strap or back style. The length of a nightgown may vary from hip-length to floor-length. A short nightgown can be called a "shortie" or a "babydoll", depending on the style. The sweep (taper from top to bottom) of the night gown can vary from virtually straight, to full circle sweep, like the Olga gown pictured below. A slip nightgown may be used as a nightgown or as a full slip. Nightgowns may be worn with a matching outer garment, a robe, sheer chiffon peignoir or dressing gown, to make them appropriate for receiving guests.


The Dictionary of Fashion History highlights the use of the term "nightgown" as early as 1530, when French linguist John Palsgrave translates "sloppe" to nightgown in his own textbook.There is no indication whether the term referred to sleepwear or an item of clothing with a different purpose, however. There, additionally, is little evidence of designated sleepwear prior to the 16th century.  Some historians suggest a lack of record of early sleepwear is due to social attitudes. Sleepwear was widely regarded as a private matter within households until it became more popularized.

Modern nightgowns originate from nightshirts on men, or night-chemises on women which date back to as early as the 16th century. Nightshirts and night-chemises tended to just be day shirts or undergarments and were similarly ankle-length, shapeless articles with varying collars.Nobles and Lords however wore nightshirts that were embroidered.

It was not until the late 17th century that sleepwear developed its own identity in Western Europe, and higher-class women began to wear chemise-like gowns exclusively to bed, known as nightshifts.[7] Nightshifts developed more shape when the negligée was born in France in the early 18th century. The negligée was typically made with soft-sheer fabric and was tighter around the waist, but still loose-fitting for comfort.  It was also a sign of wealth and is regarded as the first women’s nightwear to be used widely and a predecessor to the modern nightgown.


In portraiture during the 17th and 18th centuries, high class members of society would often pose in their nightgowns, or casual day wear, for comfort and to display their exoticism. When the nightgown was redefined as sleepwear in the 20th century, it reached new levels of popularity amongst women as styles became more flattering and it entered the fashion world.

Ivy League T-Shirt

Ivy League T-Shirt   

Ivy League is a style of men's dress, popular during the late 1950s in the Northeastern United States, and said to have originated on college campuses, particularly those of the Ivy League. It was the predecessor to the preppy style of dress.


Ivy League clothing is derived from the casual attire worn by the British and American upper classes during the 1920s, for sporting pursuits such as golf, polo, sailing, rugby football, hunting, Water Polo, and tennis. Typical summer attire for this time included navy two button blazers with gold buttons, striped college blazers, Ascot ties, cable knit tank tops, Oxford shirts, Breton striped shirts, and wingtip shoes. For fall, trendsetters such as the Prince of Wales combined the latest American fashions with traditional British country clothing such as brogue boots, Argyle socks and jumpers, and tweed cloth sportcoats, Irish walking hats and plus fours in houndstooth, herringbone, or the Prince of Wales check popularized by Edward VII.[citation needed]

In popular culture

During the 1950s, the wealthy and clean cut Squares, Rahs and Socs (Soc being short for social) with their Ivy League clothes were the rivals to the working class Greaser subculture.The conflict between the two groups features in Grease, The Outsiders, Indiana Jones and the Crystal Skull, and Cry-Baby. In a scene in The Godfather, set in 1946, Michael Corleone is derided as an unlikely assassin because he is a "college boy" who wears an "Ivy League suit." The style was parodied in Clark Gesner's song The Ivy League Look from the 1957-58 Princeton Triangle Club musical "After A Fashion".

Henley shirt

Henley shirt  

A Henley shirt is a collarless pullover shirt, characterized by a round neckline and a placket about 3 to 5 inches (8 to 13 cm) long and usually having 2–5 buttons. It essentially is a collarless polo shirt. The sleeves may be either short or long, and it can be made in almost any fabric, although cotton, cotton-polyester blends, and thermals are by far the most popular. Henley shirts are generally regarded as menswear, but women's versions have appeared as business casual and casual wear as well.


Henley shirts were named because they were the traditional uniform of rowers in the English town of Henley-on-Thames. The first Henley Royal Regatta was in 1839.

In his biography of Ralph Lauren, the journalist Michael Gross quotes a New York merchant who recalled showing a vintage shirt to a Ralph Lauren buyer: "I showed this fellow underwear—a three-button long-sleeve shirt by Johnstown Knitting Mills. He said, 'This is a new shirt.' That's where he got the idea for the Henley shirt."

Granddad Shirt

Granddad Shirt 

 A Grandfather shirt or Granddad shirt or "50s T-Shirt" is a long-sleeved or short-sleeved flannel or brushed cotton band collared shirt worn throughout Ireland. Traditional shirts are white with coloured vertical stripes. Longer shirts are used as nightshirts or pajamas. The nightshirt version can include a matching nightcap.

The style of shirt (called a union shirt) was also worn by working-class men in the United Kingdom during the industrial era. At this period, the lack of a turndown or collar "cape" was filled by the use of a detachable collar. The 2010s decade has also seen the garment feature as a mainstream fashion item for men.The grandfather shirt is also made of Irish linen. The linen version is colloquially known as a 'Sunday shirt'. Sunday shirts are often paired with black trousers or Irish tweed pants and worn to mass, christenings, funerals, and weddings.

In popular culture, a variety of traditional Irish clothing was featured on the BBC series, Ballykissangel and the Irish folk band, The Clancy Brothers were often photographed wearing traditional Irish clothes.

Flannel Shirt

Flannel Shirt  

Flannel is a soft woven fabric, of various fineness. Flannel was originally made from carded wool or worsted yarn, but is now often made from either wool, cotton, or synthetic fiber.

Flannel may be brushed to create extra softness or remain unbrushed. Brushing is a mechanical process wherein a fine metal brush rubs the fabric to raise fine fibres from the loosely spun yarns to form a nap on one or both sides. If the flannel is not napped, it gains its softness through the loosely spun yarn in its woven form.Flannel is commonly used to make tartan clothing, blankets, bed sheets, and sleepwear. The term "flannel shirt" is often mistakenly used to refer to any shirt with a plaid or tartan pattern casually. However, it is actually just a form of fabric and there can be flannel shirts that are not plaid.


The origin of the word is uncertain, but a Welsh origin has been suggested as fabric similar to flannel can be traced back to Wales, where it was well known as early as the 16th century. The French term flanelle was used in the late 17th century, and the German Flanell was used in the early 18th century.

Flannel has been made since the 17th century, gradually replacing the older Welsh plains, some of which were finished as "cottons" or friezes, which was the local textile product. In the 19th century, flannel was made particularly in towns such as Newtown, Montgomeryshire,[2] Hay on Wye,[3] and Llanidloes.[4] The expansion of its production is closely associated with the spread of carding mills, which prepared the wool for spinning, this being the first aspect of the production of woollen cloth to be mechanised (apart from fulling). The marketing of these Welsh woollen clothes was largely controlled by the Drapers Company of Shrewsbury.[5][6][7]

At one time Welsh, Yorkshire, Lancashire and Irish flannels differed slightly in character due largely to the grade of raw wool used in the several localities, some being softer and finer than others. While nowadays, the colour of flannel is determined by dyes, originally this was achieved through mixing white, blue, brown and black wools in varying proportions. Lighter shades were achieved by bleaching with sulphur dioxide.[8]

Originally it was made of fine, short staple wool, but by the 20th century mixtures of silk and cotton had become common. It was at this time that flannel trousers became popular in sports, especially cricket, in which it was used extensively until the late 1970s.

The use of flannel plaid shirts was at peak in the 1990s with popular grunge bands like Nirvana and Pearl Jam using them as one of the trademarks of their shaggy look. However, few of the mass-produced plaid shirts available at the time were actually made out of flannel. The association between flannel and plaid has led to the use of flannel as a synonym for plaid.


Baby flannel is a lightweight fabric used for childrenswear.

Cotton flannel or Canton flannel is a cotton fabric napped on one side or two sides.

Ceylon flannel was a name for a wool and cotton mixture.

Diaper flannel is a stout cotton fabric napped on both sides, and used for making cloth diapers.

Vegetable flannel, invented by Léopold Lairitz in Germany in the 1800s, uses fibres from the Scots pine rather than wool.


Flannel, flannelette, and cotton flannel can be woven in either a twill weave or plain weave. The weave is often hidden by napping on one or both sides. After weaving, it is napped once, then bleached, dyed, or otherwise treated, and then napped a second time.

Epaulette Shirt

Epaulette Shirt  

Epaulette is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations. In the French and other armies, epaulettes are also worn by all ranks of elite or ceremonial units when on parade. It may bear rank or other insignia, and should not be confused with a shoulder mark – also called a shoulder board, rank slide, or slip-on – a flat cloth sleeve worn on the shoulder strap of a uniform (although the two terms are often used interchangeably).

Epaulettes are fastened to the shoulder by a shoulder strap or passenten  a small strap parallel to the shoulder seam, and the button near the collar, or by laces on the underside of the epaulette passing through holes in the shoulder of the coat. Colloquially, any shoulder straps with marks are also called epaulettes. The placement of the epaulette, its color and the length and diameter of its bullion fringe are used to signify the wearer's rank. At the join of the fringe and the shoulderpiece is often a metal piece in the form of a crescent. Although originally worn in the field.


Epaulettes bear some resemblance to the shoulder pteruges of ancient Greco-Roman military costumes. However, their direct origin lies in the bunches of ribbons worn on the shoulders of military coats at the end of the 17th century, which were partially decorative and partially intended to prevent shoulder belts from slipping. These ribbons were tied into a knot that left the fringed end free. This established the basic design of the epaulette as it evolved through the 18th and 19th centuries.

Modern derivations

Today, epaulettes have mostly been replaced by a five-sided flap of cloth called a shoulder board, which is sewn into the shoulder seam and the end buttoned like an epaulette.

From the shoulder board was developed the shoulder mark, a flat cloth tube that is worn over the shoulder strap and carries embroidered or pinned-on rank insignia. The advantages of this are the ability to easily change the insignia as occasions warrant.

Airline pilot uniform shirts generally include cloth flattened tubular epaulettes having cloth or bullion braid stripes, attached by shoulder straps integral to the shirts. The rank of the wearer is designated by the number of stripes: Traditionally four for captain, three for first officer (copilot), two for second officer (flight engineer). However, rank insignia are airline specific. For example, at some airlines, two stripes denote junior first officer and one stripe second officer (cruise or relief pilot). Airline captains' uniform caps usually will have a braid pattern on the bill.

Formal Shirt

Formal shirt 
In the UK, the term dress shirt is reserved for a particular type of formal shirt. There are formal day shirts for wearing with morning dress, and the white dress shirts used as eveningwear.

A day dress shirt is fairly similar to a normal shirt, and is usually white, with a stiff detachable collar, though other designs, such as a vertical blue stripe, are also appropriate. Double cuffs are most common. This sort of shirt is also conventionally worn by some barristers and judges.

An evening shirt, for wear with eveningwear, for example as part of black or white tie has some unique features. In the U.S., this shirt is often called a tuxedo shirt or tux shirt. The shirt is always white.

The shirt required for white tie is very specific. It should have a detachable wing collar and be fastened with shirt studs instead of buttons on the front. The studs are normally mother of pearl set in gold or silver, but black onyx inlay is also permissible. The cufflinks should match the studs. The shirt front has panels made of different material from the rest of the shirt which are the only parts seen under the waistcoat. The shape of the panels, one on each side, is either rectangular, or the older U-shape (designed to sit under the older 1920s U-shaped waistcoats, now largely replaced by the more modern V-shape). The material for the panels is either layers of thick plain cotton that is heavily starched (this type is often called a boiled front shirt as the shirt needs to be put in boiling water to remove the starch before cleaning), or marcella (piqué) cotton. Marcella is more common, but a little less formal, though still appropriate, since it was originally designed to be used on formal evening shirts, as the ribbing can pick up more starch and create an even stiffer front. Traditionally, collarless shirts with a detachable wing collar fastened on with collar studs have been used, but all-in-one designs are occasionally seen, though this is considered incorrect and to give a poor appearance by many. Cuffs are single, and heavily starched (if the front is marcella, the cuffs usually match).
Black tie offers more leeway. Shirts may be soft (not starched), which gives the options of unstarched marcella or a pleated front, as well as the white tie shirts, which may also be worn with black tie. The collar is still sometimes a stiff high wing collar (common in America, though the attached variety is more popular there), or a turndown collar (more frequently seen in Britain). In past decades, particularly the 1970s, ruffled shirt fronts were made fashionable by Will Hunter,[citation needed] although they are now out of favour. Dress-studs are optional, and are onyx set in either silver or gold if used; otherwise the buttons are normally concealed under a placket. Cufflinks tend to be as simple and understated as possible, and harmonise with, if not match, the studs.

The placket of the shirt is the part that holds the buttons and the button holes. This is highly regarded as the focal point of the dress shirt when worn casually. Unfortunately due to the lack of reinforcement, the weight of the collar will cripple the placket throughout the day. No amount of starch, ironing, pressing nor does the type of fabric matter when it comes to combating the collapse.


In the US, ready-to-wear sizes of dress shirts traditionally consist of two numbers such as 15½ 34, meaning that the shirt has a neck 15 1⁄2 inches (390 mm) in girth (measured from centre of top button to centre of corresponding buttonhole) and a sleeve 34 inches (860 mm) long (measured from midpoint of the back and shoulders to the wrist). However, to reduce the number of sizes needed to be manufactured and stocked, an average sleeve length is sometimes given in the form 15½ 34/35 (indicating a neck 15 1⁄2 inches (390 mm) in girth and a 35 inches (890 mm) sleeve). Since the cuff frequently features two buttons, the cuff diameter can be reduced so that the cuff does not come down over the hand, allowing the shirt to fit the shorter length. Since the sleeve and neck size do not take into account waist size, some shirts are cut wide to accommodate large belly sizes. Shirts cut for flat stomachs are usually labeled, "fitted", "tailored fit" "athletic fit" or "trim fit". The terms for fuller cut shirts are more varied ("Traditional", "Regular" etc.) and are sometimes explained on a shirt maker's website. Additionally, "Portly" or "Big" are often used for neck sizes of 18 inches (460 mm) or more. Very casual button-front shirts are often sized as small, medium, large, and so on. The meaning of these ad-hoc sizes is similarly not standardized and varies between manufacturers.

In the bespoke (custom-made) industry where each shirt is made from an individually drafted pattern, these sizing problems are avoided, though there are still different ways of making the shirt fit. While many choose to cut the sleeve long and have the cuff catch on the hand to regulate its length, some prefer the much harder option of using a high armhole and carefully tailored shape, so that the cuff can be loose and still sit in exactly the right place wherever the arm moves.

Made-to-measure shirts may not fit quite as well as bespoke, but can provide a similar degree of customisation and fit at a lower cost.

For sixty years, US designers and manufacturers of neckties and dress shirts were members of the Men's Dress Furnishings Association but the trade group shut down in 2008 due to declining membership caused by the declining numbers of men wearing neckties

Casual Shirt

Casual Shirt 
Casual wear (casual attire or clothing) is a Western dress code that is relaxed, occasional, spontaneous and suited for everyday use. Casual wear became popular in the Western world following the counterculture of the 1960s. When emphasising casual wear's comfort, it may be referred to as leisurewear.

While casual is "informal" in the sense of "not formal", informal attire traditionally refers to a Western dress code associated with suits - a step below semi-formal attire - thus being more formal than casual attire.


With the popularity of spectator sports in the late 20th century, a good deal of athletic gear has influenced casual wear, such as jogging suits, running shoes, and track clothing. Work wear worn for manual labor also falls into casual wear. Basic materials used for casual wear include denim, cotton, jersey, flannel, and fleece. Materials such as velvet, chiffon, and brocade are often associated with more formal clothes.

While utilitarian costume comes to mind first for casual dress, however, there is also a wide range of flamboyance and theatricality. Punk fashion and fashion of the 1970s and 1980s is a striking example. Madonna introduced a great deal of lace, jewelry, and cosmetics into casual wear during the 1980s. In the 1990s, hip hop fashion played up elaborate jewelry and luxurious materials worn in conjunction with athletic gear and the clothing of manual labor.


Jeans, dress shirt (casually turn down collared), and a T-shirt or sleeveless shirt are typically considered casual wear for men in modern times. Whether you are wearing a tie with a suit, or you are just want to go for a casual smart look, casual shirts for men can be considered to be one of the most staple items of today's men's fashion. If you want to know more ways to style a casual shirt, then this article is definitely for you.


Casual wear is typically the dress code in which forms of gender expression are experimented with. An obvious example is masculine jewelry, which was once considered shocking or titillating even in casual circles, and is now hardly noteworthy in semi-formal situations. Amelia Bloomer introduced trousers of a sort for women as a casual alternative to formal hoops and skirts. The trend toward female exposure in the 20th century tended to push the necklines of formal ball gowns lower and the skirts of cocktail dresses higher. For men, the exposure of shoulders, thighs, and backs is still limited to casual wear.

Camp Collar Shirt

 Camp Collar Shirt  

The camp-collar shirt was a traditional worker’s garment known as the ‘Guayabera’. It just might be the first streetwear item in Western men’s fashion: a traditionally humble piece of workwear that went haute.

Originating in either Mexico or the Philippines, depending who you ask, and scattered around the New World by the Spanish, the Guayabera has been a wardrobe staple in Cuba since the 18th century. It is thanks to Cubans that, to better help farmers endure the heat, the shirt evolved from its historic mandarin collar to the spread camp-collar we recognize today. While most guys now sport the camp-collar shirt for its air of retro glamour, in Cuba it is a symbol of national pride. Many government officials go to work in a Guayabera instead of a suit. It is such a part of the nation’s culture that, in 2010, the Cuban Guayabera—camp-collar and all—was designated as the “Official Formal Dress Garment” of the country.

Like the desperate immigrants who landed on the shores of Miami, the camp collar shirt carries an air of the exotic. Unlike a traditional business shirt, a camp collar doesn’t have a separate collar band, being instead attached via two pieces of fabric (the collar topside and another for the bottom) to the shirt body, allowing it to splay open casually and sit flat against the chest. The lack of a top button also precludes it from ever being worn with a tie (to the consternation of depressed office-workers everywhere).

Aloha shirt

Aloha shirt 

The Aloha shirt, also referred to as a Hawaiian shirt, is a style of dress shirt originating in Hawaii. They are collared and buttoned dress shirts, usually short-sleeved and cut from printed fabric. They are often worn untucked, but can be worn tucked in as well. They are not only casual wear, but serve as informal business attire in Hawaii.


According to some sources, the origin of Aloha shirts can be traced to the 1920s or the early 1930s, when the Honolulu-based dry goods store "Musa-Shiya the Shirtmaker" under the proprietorship of Kōichirō Miyamoto, started making shirts out of colorful Japanese prints.It has also been contended that the Aloha shirt was devised in the early 1930s by Chinese merchant Ellery Chun of "King-Smith Clothiers and Dry Goods", a store in Waikiki. Although this claim has been described as a myth reinforced by repeated telling, Chun may have been the first to mass-produce or to maintain the ready-to-wear in stock to be sold off the shelf.


Aloha dress shirts are printed, mostly short-sleeved, and collared. They almost always have buttons, sometimes for the entire length of the shirt or at least down to the chest. They usually have a left chest pocket sewn in, often with attention to ensure the printed pattern remains continuous. Aloha shirts may be worn by men or women. Women's aloha shirts usually have a lower-cut, v-neck style.

The lower hems are straight, and the shirts are often worn with the shirt-tails hanging out, rather than tucked in. Wearing an untucked shirt was possibly influenced by the local Filipinos who wore shirt-tail out, and called these bayau meaning "friend". Wearing it untucked or tucked depends on personal taste; it carries the same connotations of tucking or unlocking a polo shirt. In the 1950s, the shirt became allowed as business attire for aloha week, but only if worn tucked in.

Traditional men's aloha shirts are usually adorned with traditional Hawaiian quilt designs, tapa designs, and simple floral patterns in more muted colors. Contemporary aloha shirts may have prints that do not feature any traditional Hawaiian quilt or floral designs but instead may incorporate drinks, palm trees, surf boards or other island tropical elements in a similar form as the traditional aloha shirt.

It has been observed that locals (kamaʻāina) tended to shy away from the garishness of Aloha shirts as "too wild" when they first appeared, whereas tourists embraced wearing designs of many bright colors. An example of the type of shirt the locals may prefer includes the "reverse print"; these shirts are often printed on the interior, resulting in the muted color on the exterior.[citation needed]

Aloha attire

The related concept of "aloha attire" stems from the Aloha shirt. Semi-formal functions such as weddings, birthday parties, and dinners are often designated as "aloha attire", meaning that men wear Aloha shirts and women wear muumuu or other tropical prints. Because Hawaii tends to be more casual, it is rarely appropriate to attend such functions in full evening wear like on the mainland instead, aloha attire is seen as the happy medium between excessive formality and casual wear (i.e., business casual).

Friday, November 27, 2020

Denim Shirt

Denim Shirt  

The word “jean” started out in the 1800s, in reference to a twill cotton cloth used for trousers. But the textile soon became conflated with the garment it was commonly used for. Blue jeans, now called “denim”, were originally made from this fabric and manufactured in the French town of Nîmes (bleu de Nîmes). There is still debate over whether the word “denim” is an anglicised version of the French textile or whether the French name was given to an already existing English product to give it prestige. By the 20th century, “jean” was the term for a wide range of cotton or denim informal trousers.

The most recognisable, classic jeans as we've come to know them—made from indigo-dyed denim with pockets and sturdy riveting suitable for workwear—were patented in 1873 by Jacob Davis, a tailor, and Levi Strauss, owner of a wholesale fabric house in San Francisco. The copper rivets used to reinforce the pockets were appreciated by miners and other labourers, who complained about frequent pocket rips. Strauss and Davis initially made jeans in two types of fabric, brown duck and blue denim, but the creation of the denim 501 style in 1890 helped the latter fabric take off. Over the course of the decade, design improvements were made: Strauss added a double arch of orange stitching for further reinforcement and to identify them as Levi's; belt loops appeared in 1922; zippers replaced the button fly on some styles in 1954. But when Strauss and Davis's patent ended in 1890, other manufacturers were free to reproduce the style. OshKosh B'Gosh entered the market in 1895, Blue Bell (later Wrangler) in 1904 and Lee Mercantile in 1911. During the First World War, Lee Union-Alls jeans were standard issue for all war workers.

Hollywood helped romanticise the blue jean in the 1920s and 1930s by putting the trousers on handsome cowboy types played by the likes of John Wayne and Gary Cooper. This glamorous new image spoke to consumers who sought casual leisurewear to wear at the weekends and on holidays. Publicity photos of actresses like Ginger Rogers and Carole Lombard wearing jeans helped convince women that the style was for them too. In the 1930s, Vogue gave their seal of approval, calling jeans “Western chic”. In 1942, the American designer Claire McCardell sold more than 75,000 of her denim “Popover” wrap dress.

Yet, it wasn't until the 1950s that jeans came to be associated with rebellious, anti-establishment youth. Marlon Brando and James Dean popularised the image of the denim-clad teenage idol with huge sex appeal; rock'n'roll stars helped cement the style as cool; hippies and anti-war protestors wore jeans in the 1960s and early 1970s as a way to show support for the working class; while feminists and women's lib organisers chose blue jeans as a way to demonstrate gender equity. By the 1960s, jeans had come to symbolise the counterculture. Some high schools banned the garment, which only served to further enhance its status.

By the late 1970s and early 1980s high fashion began to take an interest too. Fiorucci's Buffalo 70 jeans were skin-tight, dark, expensive and hard to purchase—in other words, the exact opposite of the faded bell-bottoms preferred by the younger crowd. They became a hit among the Studio 54 jet set. In 1976, Calvin Klein showed blue jeans on the runway—the first designer to do so. Gloria Vanderbilt introduced her hit jeans in 1979. These designer jeans were not only a commercial success, but were also marketed with a racier image in mind. In the 1980s, Brooke Shields's provocative Calvin Klein campaign and Claudia Schiffer's sultry ads for Guess helped give the blue jean a new kind of seductive potential. By the 1990s, fashion houses such as Versace, Dolce & Gabbana and Dior had also entered the jean market.

Over the decades, the types and styles of jeans became stratified among groups and subgroups: hip-hop styles of the early 1990s were characterised by oversized, low-slung baggy jeans; intellectuals and hipsters turned to dark denim as a way to get back to the style's roots; pop stars favoured Diesel's sandblasted and whiskered styles; aficionados paid high prices for vintage Levi's and hand-dyed Japanese indigo. Today, almost all luxury labels and high-fashion designers have sent jeans down the runway; and they're available at both ends of the price spectrum, in a multitude of styles: wide, skinny, high-waisted, low, light, dark or coloured.


Rayon shirt

Rayon shirt 

Rayon, acetate, and lyocell are all regenerated cellulose fibers. They originate from chemical treatment of natural materials. The materials most often used are cotton fibers too short to spin into yarns or wood chips. The Federal Trade Commission establishes generic categories of fibers for regulation and labeling purposes. The generic classification "rayon" includes several variants. Viscose rayon is the most common form. A variation of viscose, high-wet-modulus rayon was produced in 1955 with trade names of Avril and Zantrel as a modification to generate high strength, reduce elongation, and improve washability of rayon. Cuprammonium rayon is subjected to slightly different processing. U.S. cuprammonium production ceased in 1975, but it is still produced in Japan (FiberSource Web site; Kadolph and Langford 2001).

The First Manufactured Fiber

Rayon, the earliest manufactured fiber, was first patented in 1855 by the Swiss chemist Georges Audemars. It was called "artificial silk." Sir Joseph Swan, an English chemist, was inspired by Thomas Edison's incandescent electric lamp to experiment with extruding Audemars's cellulose solution through fine holes into a coagulating bath in order to create filaments for the electric light. His fibers were used in Edison's invention as well as for an 1885 exhibition of textiles his wife crocheted from his new fiber. "Artificial silk" was also exhibited at the Paris Exhibition in 1889 by the French chemist Count Hilaire de Chardonnet who is known as the "father of the rayon industry" because he built the first plant for commercial production of "Chardonnet silk" in Besancon, France.

Production of Rayon

The French chemist Louis-Henri Despeissis patented cuprammonium rayon producing what he called "Bemberg silk" as early as 1908. A British silk company, Samuel Courtaulds and Company, Ltd., began production of a rayon known as viscose rayon in 1905 and by 1911 helped start American Viscose Corporation in the United States (FiberSource Web site; Encyclopaedia Britannica 2003). Some researchers theorize that getting access to the science of producing rayon was such a benefit for the United States that it contributed to American involvement in World War I (Clairmonte and Cavanagh 1981).

Characteristics of Rayon, Acetate and Lyocell Textiles

Rayon and lyocell have high absorbency, low heat retention, and soft, non-irritating surfaces that make them comfortable next to the skin in warm weather. Both can also be manipulated to emulate the aesthetic character of cotton, wool, silk, and linen. Additionally, lyocell has the capacity to simulate the aesthetics of silk, suede, and leather. By contrast, acetate has more heat retention and less absorbency and is subject to static electricity build-up.

Viscose rayon and lyocell tend to be produced as staple (short) fibers and thereby have a textured surface that softens light reflectance. Acetate fibers are typically produced as filament fibers, and as a result acetate is more successful in simulating the luster and body of silk in such fabrics as taffeta and satin. Both rayon and lyocell dye easily although color will fade over time and with abrasion. Acetate was difficult to dye and subject to fading until synthetic solution dyes were developed to solve this problem. Acetate now is produced in a wide color range and color stability is good when fabrics are exposed to sunlight, perspiration, air pollution, and cleaning. Acetate is dissolved by fingernail polish remover containing acetone and is damaged by extended exposure to sunlight.

Unless it is the high wet modulus type, rayon has poor durability and resiliency. Rayon and acetate perform better if dry-cleaned than if laundered because they are weaker when wet. Acetate also has poor abrasion resistance and is sensitive to chemicals. While rayon may shrink or be distorted after laundering unless given special finishes, acetate is dimensionally stable. Lyocell is much stronger when wet than rayon or acetate and is considered to have good durability and dimensional stability. Resiliency is better than either rayon or acetate. Lyocell can be successfully washed by using the gentle cycle and can be pressed with a warm iron. Wrinkle-resistant treatments do not greatly affect strength. Lyocell has potential to fibrillate, which results in a fuzzy appearance on the surface. This is beneficial for a textured surface but makes the fabric subject to abrasion damage. New variations developed to lower fibrillation contribute to the versatility of this promising textile. Lyocell is often manufactured in microfiber (ultrafine) form to enhance the extremely soft feel and drape.

A major concern with acetate is its reaction to heat and to fire. While acetate wrinkles easily, it fuses and melts if ironed at high temperatures. Acetate also burns readily, as do all cellulosics, but spits molten pieces while burning that melt and fuse to the skin. Acetate is mildew and insect resistant. (FiberSource Web site; Kadolph and Langford 2001; Collier and Tortora 2000).

Nylon Shirt

Nylon Shirt  

Nylon is the name of a family of synthetic polymers that are commonly used to make a variety of different types of apparel and consumer goods. Unlike other organic or semi-synthetic fibers, nylon fibers are entirely synthetic, which means that they have no basis in organic material.

The use of this type of synthetic polymer in clothing began with a desire to find alternatives to silk and hemp for parachutes in World War II. At the time the war began, cotton was used for more than 80 percent of textile applications in the United States, and almost all other textiles were made from wool. By 1945, however, synthetic fibers like nylon constituted around 25 percent of the textile market share, and once the war ended, manufacturers sought new ways to market this new class of synthetic fabrics.

How Is Nylon Fabric Made?

Nylon fabric is a polymer, which means that it is composed of a long chain of carbon-based molecules called monomers. There are quite a few different types of nylon, but most of them are derived from polyamide monomers that are extracted from crude oil, which is also known as petroleum.

In most cases, a monomer called hexamethylenediamine is used in the production of nylon, and this substance is sometimes called diamine acid for short. This monomer is extracted from crude oil, and the remaining components of this oil are sometimes used for other purposes, but they may be discarded.

To make the polymer known as nylon, diamine acid is forced to enter into a reaction with adipic acid. This type of polymer is commonly known as PA 6,6, and it was the first type of polymer to be used for nylon fabric. PA 6,6 is a type of substance called a nylon salt, and this crystallized substance is then heated to form a molten substance.

This substance is then extruded through a spinneret, which is a device that looks similar to a showerhead that has dozens of tiny holes. Upon extrusion through the spinneret, nylon immediately hardens, and the resulting fibers are then ready to be loaded onto bobbins.

These fibers are then stretched to increase their strength and elasticity, and they are then wound onto another spool in a process called "drawing." This process causes the polymer molecules to arrange in a parallel structure, and after the drawing process is completed, the resulting fibers are ready to be spun into garments or other forms of fibers.

In some cases, nylon may be spun into fabrics on its own, but it is usually combined with other fabrics to create mixed textiles. It is then dyed to produce the color that is desired for the end product.

How Is Nylon Fabric Used?

Nylon fabric was originally marketed as an alternative to silk stockings. Until the advent of this fabric, silk was the only viable material for the types of sheer stockings that were then popular with women in the developed world, but silk lacks durability, and it is notoriously expensive.

However, some aspects of this fabric, such as its elasticity, are desired in sportswear. Even if they are mainly composed of other fabrics, some sportswear manufacturers include nylon fabric in their textile blends for enhanced elasticity and lightness.

Velvet Shirt

Velvet Shirt 

Velvet is a kind of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are distributed in an even manner in a short dense pile thus giving a very soft and smooth feel.Velvet fabric is traditionally made with silk, in which cotton is used only occasionally. Recently, there has been an advent of using synthetic fabrics for velvet. Apart from the fabric, the word `velvety’ is also used to describe something smooth, soft and with a rich touch.

Origin and History

It is widely believed that Velvet was first introduced in Baghdad around 809 A.D., by Kashmiri merchants who travelled there. The medieval poet – Ziryab introduced Velvet to the Al-Andalus Empire (parts of modern day Spain, Portugal, Gibralter, Andorra and France). During the Mamluk Sultanate era (1250-1517 A.D.), the city of Cairo was largest producer of Velvet.

Since a long time, velvet has come to be associated closely with royalty across continents. Velvet clothing, being visually gorgeous, creates a sophisticated and upper crust look.

Currently though, with the development of power looms, Velvet has become more affordable and people across various sections aspire to be seen in Velvet clothing. Besides the affordable pricing, nowadays Velvet is made from cotton, linen, mohair and wool along with silk . Lately, synthetic Velvets too are being produced.

Pricing of Velvet per yard depends on the base fiber used. For a yard of Velvet made with silk, the pricing can vary anywhere between Rs. 5000/- to Rs. 10000/- whereas a yard of Velvet made using synthetic material such as rayon can be priced as low as Rs. 1000/-.

One of the most expensive range of Velvet is the Kuba Velvet which is priced anywhere between Rs. 15000/- to Rs. 20000/- per piece of clothing which might be a skirt or a wrap. Apart from clothing in general, Velvet is extensively used for upholstery.


An assortment of Velvet is used for clothing purposes. There are 6 prominent varieties:

Devore Velvet – having a plain background with part of the velvet on a specific area of the clothing, is used for fashionable evening dresses, jackets and scarves

Crushed Velvet – is pressed down all over the fabric, giving a unique luster.

Plain Velvet – has got three variants, silk viscose and cotton.

Velveteen – made from cotton and is heavier than most of the other varieties. A lot of dresses, trousers and kid’s wear are made using velveteen.

Embossed Velvet is created by stamping designs on them and used mainly to create designs especially floral ones.

Hammered Velvet is similar to Crushed velvet to the extent that it is pressed down on the fabric but not fully.

Viscose Shirt

Viscose Shirt 
What is viscose and where did it come from?

Perhaps you have heard of viscose, or maybe you know it better as Rayon. This is the term for viscose in the United States. But what actually is it?

Viscose is a type of rayon. Originally known as artificial silk, in the late 19th century, the term “rayon” came into effect in 1924. The name “viscose” derived from the way this fibre is manufactured; a viscous organic liquid used to make both rayon and cellophane. What this means in English? Viscose is the generalised term for a regenerated manufactured fibre, made from cellulose, obtained by the viscose process.

As a manufactured regenerated cellulose fibre, it is neither truly natural (like cotton, wool or silk) nor truly synthetic (like nylon or polyester) – it falls somewhere in between.

Viscose is a low-cost fabric, which is popular thanks to its myriad of qualities. It can be found in cotton end uses, as well as luxurious velvet’s and taffeta’s. Viscose can also be found in feminine hygiene products, as well as tire cords.

Chemically, viscose resembles cotton, but it can also take on many different qualities depending on how it is manufactured.

Is viscose a sustainable fabric?

Because viscose is made from renewable plants, it is frequently cited as being environmentally friendly, and sustainable. But is this actually the case?

Viscose is the oldest manufactured fibre, first being produced in 1883 as a cheap alternative to silk. Viscose production generally begins with wood pulp, and there are several chemical and manufacturing techniques to make it.

To create viscose, and make it stand up to regular wearing and washing, it must be chemically treated. The recycled wood pulp is treated with chemicals such as caustic soda, ammonia, acetone, and sulphuric acid. We therefore have a fabric, which comes from a natural and sustainable source, but that is made with chemicals.

Because viscose is made from cellulose, there is an argument to say that it is a more sustainable fibre then other synthetic fibres, such as polyester. Viscose is increasingly being manufactured using the Lyocell process. This uses N-Methlymorpholine N-oxide as the solvent. This method produces little waste product, making it far more eco-friendly.

What are some characteristics of viscose?

Viscose has a myriad of brilliant qualities, which makes it a popular fibre to work with. Thanks to its characteristics, several industries use it, to create a wide range of products. Some of the most beneficial characteristics of viscose include:

Versatile – it blends very well with other fibres

Drapes well
Excellent colour retention
Highly absorbent
Very smooth
Does not trap body heat
Relatively light
Strong and robust
Soft and comfortable
No static build up

These all sound great, but there are some slightly less positive traits to viscose. However, none of these are particularly negative. A little care during wearing and washing, will make these traits obsolete. 

It can shrink when washed
Can wrinkle easily
Deteriorates with exposure to light
Susceptible to mildew
Fibres can weaken when wet

Printing on Viscose

You can print your designs on viscose in just a few simple steps. First, upload your design, photos or pattern to Contrado’s design interface. Then make sure it’s the right size and in the right position. Once you’ve done that you can choose whether to repeat your pattern using one if our repeat effects, and then all that’s left is to choose your dimensions and place your order. You can get your hands on a discount voucher for viscose printing if you order a test print first, plus it means you get to see for yourself just how easy it is.

Thursday, November 26, 2020

Twill Shirt

Twill Shirt 

Twill is a beautiful fabric. It is detailed and elaborate and comes in a variety of patterns and styles. Depending on the color of the threads used and the weave variation, it can produce a diagonal or herringbone texture. Twill fabrics are often more substantial (thicker) and less transparent than a broadcloth of similar quality.  Twill fabrics will also usually be a bit more shiny, and drape in a way that is softer than broadcloth or pinpoint.

Within the twill fabric family, you can find a variety, including:

Imperial and Cavalry Twills
These are the thickest twills, and they will have a very bold, noticeable texture to them.

Royal Twills
These have less diagonal texture than the Imperial or Cavalry Twills, but their texture will still be noticeable from a close distance.  We typically reserve this name for very high thread count twills (120s) that are of only the best quality.

Fine Twills
Woven more tightly, the diagonal texture will only be apparent on close inspection. A simple, solid color twill dress shirt is extremely dressy and fit for any formal occasion.

Believe it or not, denim is also a type of twill.  Look closely at your jeans and you will see the fine diagonal texture.

Tweed Shirt

Tweed Shirt 

Tweed is a rough, woolen fabric, of a soft, open, flexible texture, resembling cheviot or homespun, but more closely woven. It is usually woven with a plain weave, twill or herringbone structure. Colour effects in the yarn may be obtained by mixing dyed wool before it is spun.

Tweeds are an icon of traditional Scottish and Irish clothing, being desirable for informal outerwear, due to the material being moisture-resistant and durable. Tweeds are made to withstand harsh climates and are commonly worn for outdoor activities such as shooting and hunting, in both Ireland and Scotland. In Ireland, tweed manufacturing is now most associated with County Donegal but originally covered the whole country . In Scotland, tweed manufacturing is most associated with the Isle of Harris in the Hebrides.

The original name of the cloth was tweel, Scots for twill, the material being woven in a twilled rather than a plain pattern. A traditional story has the name coming about almost by chance. Around 1831, a London merchant received a letter from a Hawick firm, Wm. Watson & Sons, Dangerfield Mills about some "tweels". The merchant misinterpreted the handwriting, understanding it to be a trade-name taken from the River Tweed that flows through the Scottish Borders textile area. The goods were subsequently advertised as Tweed and the name has remained since.

Types of tweed

Harris Tweed: A handwoven tweed, defined in the Harris Tweed Act 1993 as cloth that is "Handwoven by the islanders at their homes in the Outer Hebrides, finished in the Outer Hebrides, and made from pure virgin wool dyed and spun in the Outer Hebrides".

Donegal tweed: A handwoven tweed manufactured in County Donegal, Ireland. Donegal has been producing tweed from local materials for centuries. Sheep thrive in the hills and bogs of Donegal, and indigenous plants such as blackberries, gorse (whins), and moss provide dyes. Donegal Tweed has been manufactured in County Donegal Ireland for several centuries, this ancient craft is still kept alive today but a number of handweavers in the Donegal countryside, the town of Ardara is known as the 'Home of Donegal Tweed'. A building known locally as 'The Mart' built around 1900 once housed 60 handweavers from the local area, one of those weavers was Joseph Mulhern who was a weaver in the early part of that century, his sons Peter and Dennis also became handweavers and worked in The Mart from an early age, Dennis later acquired the building and launched his own Donegal Tweed business called Triona Design that continues to make garments using Tweed.

Silk tweed: A fabric made of raw silk with flecks of colour typical of woollen tweed.


Taffeta Shirt

Taffeta Shirt  

What Is Taffeta Fabric?

Taffeta is a crisp, lightweight fabric that is commonly used to make a variety of types of high-end women's apparel. This plain woven fabric is smooth to the touch, and it can be made from a variety of different materials.

The word "taffeta" is derived from tafta, which means "twisted woven" in Persian. While it's true that taffeta fabric is made by twisting yarn as it is woven, many other fabrics are also made with this method, which means that the starched and shape-retaining qualities of taffeta are more representative of its unique attributes than its name.

Traditionally, taffeta was made from silk, but with the advent of synthetic fibers in the 20th century, textile manufacturers started making this fabric from materials like rayon and polyester. While it's still possible to find silk taffeta fabric, it's much more common to find versions of this fabric that are made from polyester.

While the term "taffeta" has been used to describe lightweight silk garments for close to a thousand years, it's unclear whether the taffeta of the distant past resembled the type of fabric that goes by this name today. This fabric shows up multiple times throughout history; for instance, it's reported that tabby cats were originally named for their resemblance to a certain type of striped taffeta fabric.

How Is Taffeta Fabric Made?

This type of fabric is made with a variety of different techniques depending on the type of material that is used in its production. Silk production, for instance, involves the cultivation and harvesting of silkworm cocoons. This process is highly environmentally sustainable, but it results in the deaths of silkworms.

Once silkworm cocoons are boiled, they are unraveled or "reeled," and the resulting thread is then soaked in a mild, non-toxic solution. Finally, this thread is spun into yarn, and it may be dyed at this point. However, certain types of taffeta fabric are dyed after a bolt of fabric has already been woven.

While some taffeta fabric is made from semi-synthetic substances like cuprammonium rayon, it's much more common to find this product made from polyester. Since polyester is a fully synthetic textile fiber, its production process varies widely from that which is used to make silk.

Polyester is derived from a compound called ethylene, which is a constituent part of petroleum. This ethylene is reacted with dimethyl terephthalate at a high temperature, which produces a monomer alcohol. This monomer is then combined with terephthalic acid to produce the polymer known as polyester.

This molten substance is then extruded through a slot and allowed to cool into long ribbons. These ribbons are then chipped, and they are melted again. Next, this molten polyester is extruded through a spinneret, and the resulting strands of textile fiber are allowed to cool before they are stretched in a process called "drawing." Lastly, the drawn polyester fibers are dyed or subjected to flame retardant or antistatic treatments.

Once raw textile fiber is acquired, taffeta fabric can be formed with either hand weaving or an industrial weaving machine. A special twisting procedure is used to provide the crisp and lightweight qualities of this fabric. Depending on the type of taffeta fabric that is produced, it may be dyed before or after weaving.


Suede shirt

Suede shirt  
History of Suede Leather

Suede is considered to be a sub-type of leather. It is a material with a fuzzy finish. It is often used to make purses, jackets, shoes, etc. The name suede is from a French origin.

Leather is animal skin that has been treated in specific ways, known as tanning, to preserve and soften it for use. It is made from the underside of animal skin which is softer and more flexible than the outer layer.

The history of leather dates back to as long as 50,000 years ago. It was when humans started to travel from the warmer regions of the earth to colder parts of the northern hemisphere. Although prehistoric people had already discovered how to use animal skin to keep themselves warm, preserving the skin was a difficult task. When the skin would be dry, it would become stiff, and uncomfortable to wear.

As a result, the tanning procedures were discovered. A variety of processes have been known to be used such as boiling the skin in tree barks and then salting them. Preservation techniques involved rubbing the skins with animal fat, bending and working on them to make them soft enough to be comfortably worn.

The Origins of Suede

The tanning process was used to show off the skin’s ‘grain’ (outer) side. The skins that had their grain sides scratched, and were otherwise unusable, were eventually discovered to be put to use by making suede. The underside of the skin was processed and the skin was worn inside-out. This was the initial making of suede leather.

Suede can be made out of almost any type of animal hide. However, the most common are the skins of lamb, goats, pigs, calf, and deer. The type of animal used in the making of the suede affects the finished product. When thicker hides of older animals are used, the suede has a napped texture that isn’t as soft and light as the suede people usually prefer.

During the Industrial Revolution, changes came about in the tanning procedures of making leather. New chemicals and processes became available for tanning.

During the 20th century, suede became a fashion trend. Due to its lavish and delicate outlook, Suede soon became a status symbol. Famous high-end fashion designers such as Paquin, Givenchy, and Hermes started preferring suede for their catwalks due to its versatility as a material.

Designers have often worked with tanneries to develop their own unique and innovative form of suede. These collaborations have resulted in the creation of different ideas such as reversible and double-faced skins, embossing to resemble hides of endangered animals, and new perforating techniques.

The name suede is of French origin. It comes from the phrase ‘gants de Suede’ which roughly translates to ‘gloves from Sweden’. This phrase was used to refer to specific types of gloves which were imported from Sweden and were very soft. Inspired by this phrase, any leather material with a napped finish started being called ‘Suede’.

How is Suede made?

There are two ways in which leather is processed to turn it into suede. First is when the soft underside is used only by turning the skin upside down so that the softer side is on the outside. However, this technique makes the suede lose a bit of its lovely delicacy and makes it hard. The second way and the one used by the majority is when the leather is split, and the upper grain removed to reveal only the napped, fuzzy underside. As a result of this technique, the fuzziness stays on both sides. This technique also helps retain the softness and flexibility of the leather.

What is Suede used for?

The texture of suede makes it unsuitable to be worn as a basic clothing piece such as a shirt or a dress. Fashion pieces made out of suede are usually known to have high-quality and are considered luxurious. The products most commonly made out of suede are bags, shoes and coats/jackets. One of the most popular uses is to make traditional western jackets and shoes. Fortunately, nowadays, we have an opportunity to make lots of sewing products of suede using modern sewing machines and modern material manufacturing technology.

Types of Suede

There are various types of suede. The variety depends upon the animal skin that is used to make it.

Sheepskin Suede: Made from the skins of lambs, sheepskin suede is the most light-weighted and delicate suede of all. They are known to be much softer and lighter than their old counterparts. This suede has a very velvety nap. Even though suede is not known to be water-proof, sheepskin suede is very efficient when it comes to protecting the body from cold and dampness during the winter season.

Pigskin Suede: Due to being firm and tough in texture, pigskin suede is not as popular as sheepskin suede. It creates a shorter nap on the surface. However, pigskin suede is the sturdiest of all suedes and is long-lasting.

Cowhide Suede: Calves are known to produce much softer and lighter hides than older cows, which affects the quality of the finished suede. It is recognized to be as soft as the sheepskin suede. It also creates a very durable leather which can be extensively long-lasting. However, cowhide suede is not that popular.

Suede is a trendy material that has always been in fashion, be it in the form of suede boots or jackets. Either as a clothing piece or an accessory, one has to have a suede item in their wardrobe to know the luxurious and comfortable feel this material has been providing over the history.

Spandex T-Shirt

Spandex T-Shirt 

History Of Spandex

Spandex is a synthetic fiber invented in 1959 at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia. The word “spandex” is an anagram of the word “expands”. Spandex has become quite well known as a wonder fibre that has literally transformed the textile industry, for one. Since the first sample emerged, it has modernized various aspects of the garment industry. As the name suggests, it is particularly sought for its elasticity. Fashion has played a humongous role in widening the use of spandex all over the world. During the 70s and 80s, spandex leggings became extremely popular among many rock and heavy metal bands. The sudden embracement of spandex was because it remained stretchy and tight-fitting even after being worn for a long time.

Interesting Facts About Spandex

Spandex fibers can be stretched upto 500 to 610% more than their original length without breaking and can easily return to their original length.

In composition, Spandex is 85% polyurethane.

The state law in Sweden forbids the sale of Spandex to anybody who weighs more than 30 stones.

At 250 degrees C (480 degrees F), spandex can melt.

Formerly known as Prince, the famous pop singer altered his name to the chemical symbol for Spandex.

A stretchy, low-fat substitute has been invented by International Span Works, the largest producer of elastos.