Wednesday, November 18, 2020

Sweater

Sweater 

A sweater, also called a jumper in British English is a piece of clothing, typically with long sleeves, made of knitted or crocheted material, that covers the upper part of the body. When sleeveless, the garment is often called a slipover or sweater vest.

Sweaters are worn by adults and children of both genders, often over a shirt, blouse, T-shirt, or other top, but sometimes next to the skin. Sweaters were traditionally made from wool but can now be made of cotton, synthetic fibers, or any combination of these. There are also seasonal sweaters, which around Christmas are called "ugly sweaters".

Etymology

According to British dictionaries, "sweater" is used in British English in the same sense as in American English but "jumper" is commonly used instead (though some say that "sweater" is used for heavier ones worn for warmth Oxford University states that in British usage sweaters are always pulled over the head and jumpers are not necessarily, whereas most or all other British dictionaries disagree and say that sweaters are not necessarily pullovers or even say that jumpers are always pullovers, i.e. never open in front.

The OED gives "sweater" as appearing in 1882 and gives its definition as "A woollen vest or jersey worn in rowing or other athletic exercise, originally...in order to reduce one's weight; now commonly put on also before or after exercise to prevent taking cold. Hence a similar garment for general informal wear; a jumper or pullover"

According to most British dictionaries, British usage agrees with what American dictionaries describe as American English usage, according to which a sweater is either a pullover or a cardigan (which opens at the front). Almost all British dictionaries include cardigans as a type of sweater but at least one includes cardigans as a type of jumper (i.e. most British dictionaries consider "sweater" – and at least one considers "jumper" – to be a hypernym for both pullovers and cardigans).

Types and design

The term "sweater" is a catch-all for a variety of knit garments. Although the term often refers to a pullover, it can also refer to a cardigan, a garment that opens and fastens down the front. Within either group, there is a great variety of design. Various necklines are found, although the V-neck, turtleneck and the crew neck are the most popular. The hemline is typically at hip height or slightly longer, just overlapping the waist of one's pants or skirt, but can vary significantly. It can range from just below the bust in women's garments to mid-thigh in either sex, or even longer in a knitted variation of the poncho shirtdress. The sleeve length is also variable, ranging from full-length or three-quarters to short-sleeved, cap sleeves or sleeveless. The front seam or opening of a cardigan allows for further different styles, such as a surplice or a bolero jacket. All hems may have various types of borders, such as picots, ribbing and frills.

Knitted fabrics are generally somewhat elastic and have a softer hand (feel or drape) than woven fabric. Sweaters that are more tightly fitted or have a soft drape may conform well to the body without requiring tailoring necessary in a woven garment such as darts, flares and gores. Even when such shaping is used, it can be knit into the fabric itself, without requiring seams.

Customary wear

Thin sweaters may be worn tucked into the waistband of trousers; but otherwise, men's sweaters are worn untucked. Nonetheless, some individuals, including some television and film actors, have been known for wearing tucked-in sweaters.

Sweaters are a versatile item of clothing and can be worn on top of almost any outfit. Sports sweaters are often worn on tops of sports kit while traveling to or from a sports ground. Sweaters can be worn with a dress shirt underneath (and optionally a tie), which has the advantage of allowing the wearer to have the option of removing the sweater when it is uncomfortably warm and still looking presentable in many situations. Layering and the ease with which it allows for temperature regulation is a major benefit of the sweater as an article of clothing. Various methods have evolved for conveniently carrying a sweater, once removed. The three most common approaches are: around the waist (either loin cloth or knotted in front style) and over the shoulder.

In the late 20th century, the sweater increasingly came to be worn as an alternative to a shirt when finer materials made them more comfortable next to the skin.

Some people enjoy wearing Christmas-related sweaters around Christmas time to get into the festive spirit. Some women's sweaters are meant to be worn belted; a belt or drawstring is sometimes knitted into the sweater itself. Leggings are commonly worn with long sweaters or sweater dresses.

Care

Sweaters are often maintained by washing or dry cleaning and the use of a lint roller or pill razor. But airing (and rinsing in pure water if necessary) is considered better than washing with soap or another detergent, especially when not all of the natural oil (lanolin) has been removed from the wool. The use of detergent is in fact detrimental because it removes the lanolin, which helps the wool to repel and shed dirt as well as water. In fact, sweaters made from unscoured wool, such as some Irish Aran jumpers, remain wearable even when wet.























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