Wednesday, December 30, 2020

Paag

Paag   

The Paag is a headdress in the Mithila region of India and Nepal worn by Maithil people. It is a symbol of honour and respect and a significant part of Maithil culture.

The Paag dates back to pre-historic times when it was made of plant leaves.It exists today in a modified form. The Paag is donned mainly by the Brahmin and Kayastha communities. The colour of the Paag also carries a lot of significance. The red Paag is worn by the bridegroom and by those who are undergoing the sacred thread rituals. Paag of mustard colour is donned by those attending wedding ceremonies and the elders wear a white Paag.

A campaign to promote use of the paag was begun in 2016 by Mithilalok, a Mithila cultural pressure group set up in that year. Called Paag Bachau Abhiyan (Save the Paag Campaign), Mithilalok was associated with a proposed symbolic wearing of the garment by some representatives in the Bihar Legislative Council in August 2016, and also with a move to have it recognised as an official head-dress of the state of Bihar.

Paags designed and developed by Mithilalok are of different shades, colours and shapes considering fitting and suitability.

In order to demonstrate and send across the message of the Culture of Mithila and India, Paag March is held by Mithilalok wherein a large number of people take to streets wearing traditional Paag on their heads.


Karakul

Karakul   

A karakul is a hat made from the fur of the Qaraqul breed of sheep. The triangular hat is part of the costume of the Tajik and Pashtun native people of Kabul which has been worn by many generations of men in Afghanistan. The fur from which it is made is referred to as Astrakhan, broadtail, qaraqulcha, or Persian lamb. The hat is peaked, and folds flat when taken off of the wearer's head.

The qaraqul hat is typically worn by men in Central and South Asia. The folding qaraqul was worn by the former king of Afghanistan, Amanullah Khan in 1919. The karakul, which had distinguished all educated urban men since the beginning of the 20th century, has fallen out of fashion in Afghanistan.

Karakul caps have been worn by Kashmiris for the past several decades.The Karakul cap is colloquially known as a "Karakuli" in the Kashmir Valley. Although it is now associated with the Kashmiri gentry, it is not actually a native Kashmiri headgear. The traditional headgear of the landed gentry in Kashmir has historically been the turban tied in a similar fashion to the Pashtun equivalent (but this has now disappeared) as seen in many old photographs. The peasants in Kashmir still wear the typical skull cap .




Jaapi

Jaapi  

The jaapi or japi is a traditional conical hat from Assam, India similar to the Asian conical hat which is made from tightly woven bamboo and/or cane and tokou paat  a large, palm leaf. The word jaapi derives from jaap meaning a bundle of taku leaves. In the past, plain jaapi were used by ordinary people in Assam and by farmers for protection from the sun, while ornate jaapi were worn as a status symbol by royalty and nobility. Decorative sorudoi jaapi are made with intricate cloth designs (primarily red, white, green, blue, and black) that are integrated into the weaving.

Today the jaapi is a symbol of Assam. It is worn in a style of Bihu dance, used as protection against the elements, offered as a sign of respect in ceremonies, and placed as a decorative item around the house, especially in the walls as a welcome sign.

Originally Japi was an agricultural headgear by farmers to protect themselves from rain or sun's heat. The Bodo-Kacharis having agricultural as the main profession often used them in the rice fields. Similar headgears are also seen to be used all throughout East Asia. Bishnu Prasad Rabha added Japi dance to Assamese culture through Jaymati movie from Bodo community's Khofri Sibnai Mwsanai.It is also well known that brides of the Chutia tribe(a branch of Bodo-Kacharis) wore a Sorudoi Japi during the marriage ceremonies which was continued up until recently.




Gandhi Topi

 Gandhi Topi   

Gandhi Topi The Gandhi Topi is a white coloured sidecap, pointed in front and back and having a wide band. It is made out of khadi. It takes its name after the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi, who first popularised its use during the Indian independence movement. Worn commonly by Indian independence activists, it became a symbolic tradition for politicians and political activists to wear it in independent India.

The Gandhi Topi emerged in India during the Non-cooperation movement during 1920–22. when it became the standard Congress dress as popularized by Gandhi. In 1921, the British government tried to ban the use of the Gandhi Topi. Gandhi himself wore the cap only for one or two years during 1920–21.

Gandhi's homespun khadi attire of traditional Indian clothes were symbolic of his message of cultural pride, the use of Swadeshi goods, self-reliance and solidarity with India's rural masses. The topi became common to most followers of Gandhi and members of the Indian National Congress. A connection to the independence movement was implied when any individual wore the topi in those times.


Dhaka topi

Dhaka topi  

The Dhaka topi or Nepali topi is a hat which is popular in Nepal, and which forms part of Nepalese national dress, worn by men on celebrations.

Dhaka ko Topi literately means a "headgear made of Dhaka cloth", a fine cotton cloth once exclusively imported from Dhaka, the present-day capital of Bangladesh.

The Dhaka topi was a part of the Nepalese national dress, and a symbol of Nepalese nationality. It became popular during the reign of King Mahendra, who ruled between 1955 and 1972, and made wearing a Dhaka topi mandatory for official photographs for passports and documents. Dhaka Topis are given away as gifts during Dashain and Tihar festivals.Dhaka topi was also worn by government officials as a part of the national dress. In the times of king Mahendra Dhaka topis for rent was available near the Singha Durbar (literally Lion Hall) in Kathmandu. The badge of kukri cross is worn on the cap largely by officials in Kathmandu or when a Nepalese visit the Palace, and not the lay Nepali.

Although Dhaka clothing no longer dominates Nepalese fashion, it remains an integral part of the society and Nepalese identity. While many Nepalis now seldom wear a cap unless they are attending some cultural programme, many other men and women still wear costumes made from Dhaka on a regular basis, as it remains common sight on the streets of Kathmandu. Dhaka cloth still play a role in rituals, such as weddings and funerals of many ethnic groups living in the valley. Despite many hand-loom establishments that producing it, they still struggle to meet the constantly increasing demand for Dhaka topi. According to Tejeswar Babu Gongah, a columnist, cultural activist and cultural expert, "The topi which is round at the base, with a height of 3 to 4 inches, indicates the mountains and the Himalayas of the country. The Dhaka topi is said to represent the mountain after the melting of the ice. The melted ice enables the growth of greenery and vibrantly coloured flowers in the lower regions of the mountain."

International Nepali Dhoti and Topi Day is an day celebrated by Nepali people globally on 1 January to keep Nepali traditional fashion alive. Nepalis of Madhesi and Tharu ethnicity wear Dhoti, while all Nepali people wear Dhaka and Bhadgaunle topis on that day. Though topis are more prevalent in the day than dhoti, Madhesis have taken the opportunity to promote their distinct identity. Madhesis and Sikhs in Nepal are often discriminated against because of their refusal to wear Dhaka topi.









Tuesday, December 29, 2020

Turban

Turban  

A turban  is a type of headwear based on cloth winding. Featuring many variations, it is worn as customary headwear by people of various cultures. Communities with prominent turban-wearing traditions can be found in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, West Africa, and East Africa.

A keski is a type of turban, a long piece of cloth roughly half the length of a traditional "single turban", but not cut and sewn to make a double-width "Double Turban" 

The turban is also the traditional headdress of Sufi scholars. Additionally, turbans have often been worn by nobility, regardless of religious background. 

In India, the turban is referred to as a pagri, meaning the headdress that is worn by men and is manually tied. There are several styles, which are specific to the wearer's region or religion, and they vary in shape, size and colour. For example, the Mysore Peta, the Marathi pheta, Puneri Pagadi and the Sikh Dastar (see below). The pagri is a symbol of honour and respect everywhere it is worn. It is a common practice to honour important guests by offering them one to wear.

Colours are often chosen to suit the occasion or circumstance: for example saffron, associated with valour or sacrifice (martyrdom), is worn during rallies; white, associated with peace, is worn by elders; and pink, associated with spring, is worn during that season or for marriage ceremonies.

Navy blue is a color common more to the Sikh Nihangs, it signifies war and service, while black is associated with resistance, orange with sacrifice and martyrdom, and white with wisdom, old age, death, or peace; however during times of peace, or rallies for peace, people will usually be in war gear (i.e. blue) white only has the association.





Sehra

Sehra  

A Sehra  is a headdress worn by the groom during Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi weddings. This decorative groom’s veil can be made either out of flowers or beads and is tied to the groom’s turban or Pagdi.

The sehra has 2 main purposes:

They are intended to ward off the evil eye. Secondly, the bride and groom are not supposed to see each other before their wedding ceremony.

Therefore, a sehra solved the purpose of hiding the groom’s face, whereas the bride covered her face with a ghunghat or pallu. They are more prominently worn in North India than in other parts of the country.

It originates from Mughal Muslim culture in the Northern part of the Indian Subcontinent wherein white flower strings were tied to the turban or Pagdi and suspended to cover the groom’s face, just like the bridal ‘Ghoonghat’ or veil. For the Sikh grooms, this tradition dates back to the times of Guru Govind Singh who added flower strands to the Pagdi or turban which added an element of pride and prestige, adopted from the practices of Punjabi Muslims. Amongst Muslims the sehra has been patronized and imbibed in the Islamic culture since the Mughal era where kings wore elaborate looking head gears encrusted with precious pearls and stones during their weddings. In fact, the word ‘Sehra’ literally means a poem sung during a ‘nikah’ or in other words the wedding ceremony in the Islamic culture.





Monday, December 28, 2020

Dumalla

Dumalla  

The Dumalla is a type of turban worn by Sikhs. This turban is worn mainly by Sikhs who are initiated into the Khalsa, through participating in the Amrit Sanchar but can be worn by all Sikhs. The word Dumalla means "Du" meaning two and "Malla" meaning cloth or fabric. This is because there will usually be one fabric to form the base of the turban and a second to wrap around the base to form the turban itself. There many different types of Dumalla, in many different sizes and colours.

The Dumalla itself was worn by many of the Sikh Gurus, thus many Sikhs also adorned the Dumalla too. During the era of Mughal rule many Mughals would wear turbans as a crown to show they were of royal stature and was seen as a symbol of noble authority,  leading to oppression and inequality during the rule.

This is the turban many Sikhs who wear the Dumalla will adorn. There will usually be a base made with the hair wrapped into a bun through being twisted into a cloth to form the base or forming a bun and then covering with a cloth. It is generally tied in the way that the first layer goes over the right ear to the left top side of the base in a diagonal wrap and the same follows with the over the left ear to the right top side of the base and the third wrap going from the right ear to the top in a horizontal wrap across the top of the eyebrows. The rest of the turban is tied following the same pattern as the third wrap, being wrapped above each additional wrap until it reaches the top of turban and the extra cloth is tucked in between the existing wraps.


Sarpech

Sarpech  

Sarpech also known as an aigrette is a turban ornament that was worn by significant Hindu, Sikh and Muslim princes. Sar means head or front and pech means screw. Hence, the word Sarpech literally means that which is screwed onto the front (of the turban). It was also worn in Persia where it was known as jikka or jiqa which means crest or tuft and in Turkey it was known as Sorguch which is considered a corrupt form of the Persian word sarpush. In India, dominantly two kinds of turban ornaments exist: Sarpech and Kalgi.

In India, various types of Sarpech are found depending on their time of production. Those produced in the 16th and 17th centuries resembled a plume and were worn on the right side of the turban. Their material depended on the occasion. The original 16th-century Sarpech was a single unit; then, in the 18th century, two side units were added. With the 19th century, emphasis on elaborate jewelry increased and there were Sarpech big enough to cover half the turban.

This is a general description of the Sarpech. The basic structure of a gold Indian Sarpech is flat (hamwar). It is a single sheet of metal with gemstones set in its hollow construction. Designs are usually symmetrical (ba-qarina) and gemstones are set (jadau) on the front (rukh). The backside is exquisitely enameled too but remains hidden from the viewer. Sarpeches with one upward rising unit are known as ek kalangi while those with three projections are called tin kalangi. Most Sarpech patterns are floral in nature and seem to have borrowed from the existing textile vocabulary in Mughal India.






Galea

Galea   

A galea was a Roman soldier's helmet. Some gladiators, specifically myrmillones, also wore bronze galeae with face masks and decorations, often a fish on its crest. The exact form or design of the helmet varied significantly over time, between differing unit types, and also between individual examples – pre-industrial production was by hand – so it is not certain to what degree there was any standardization even under the Roman Empire.

Originally, Roman helmets were influenced by the neighboring Etruscans, people who utilised the "Nasua" type helmets. The Greeks in the south also influenced Roman design in its early history.

H. Russell Robinson in his book The Armour of Imperial Rome, published in 1975, classified into broad divisions the various forms of helmets that were found. He classified four main types of helmets for heavy infantry (with subcategories named with letters) and 30 different types of cheek guards.

Some of the helmets used by legionaries had a crest holder. The crests were usually made of plumes or horse hair. While the fur is usually red, the crests possibly occurred in other colors, like yellow, purple and black, and possibly in combinations of these colors such as alternating yellow and black. Gladiators such as the samnis and the hoplomachus also probably wore large feathered crests.

There is some evidence (Vegetius writings and some sculptures) that legionaries had their crests mounted longitudinally and centurions had them mounted transversely. Crests may have been worn at all times by centurions in the early empire, including during battle, but legionaries, and centurions during other periods, probably wore crests only occasionally.








Bhangda Pagdi

 Bhangda Pagdi  

Bhaṅgṛā is a type of traditional dance of the Indian subcontinent, originating in Sialkot in the Majha area of Punjab. The dance was associated primarily with the spring harvest festival Baisakhi. In a typical performance, several dancers executed vigorous kicks, leaps, and bends of the body to the accompaniment of short songs called boliyan and, most significantly, to the beat of a dhol (double-headed drum).Struck with a heavy beater on one end and with a lighter stick on the other, the dhol imbued the music with a syncopated (accents on the weak beats), swinging rhythmic character that has generally remained the hallmark of any music that has come to bear the bhangra name.

A dastar is a pagri worn by Sikhs. It is mandatory for all Khalsas, i.e., Amritdhari Sikhs, to wear one. Styles may vary between different Sikh orders and regions. A Sikh turban plays an important part of the unique Sikh identity. It is worn to cover the long, uncut hair (termed kesh) that is one of the five outward symbols ordered by Guru Gobind Singh as a means to profess the Khalsa Sikh faith. The most commonly worn styles of dastar include PatialaShahi dastar, Morni/Pochvi dastar, Amritsar Shahi dastar, Canadian style and many more regional. In Punjabi dialects pagri is often shortened to pagg. A pagri is a symbol of honour and respect in all the regions where it is a practice to wear one.




Dastar Pagdi

Dastar Pagdi   

A dastar is a pagri worn by Sikhs. It is mandatory for all Khalsas, i.e., Amritdhari (Initiated) Sikhs, to wear one. Styles may vary between different Sikh orders and regions. A Sikh turban plays an important part of the unique Sikh identity. It is worn to cover the long, uncut hair (termed kesh) that is one of the five outward symbols ordered by Guru Gobind Singh as a means to profess the Khalsa Sikh faith. The most commonly worn styles of dastar include PatialaShahi dastar, Morni/Pochvi dastar, Amritsar Shahi dastar, Canadian style and many more regional. In Punjabi dialects pagri is often shortened to pagg.      

A dastār which derives from dast-e-yār or "the hand of God" is an item of headwear associated with Sikhism, and is an important part of Sikh culture. The word is loaned from Persian through Punjabi. In Persian, the word dastār can refer to any kind of turban and replaced the original word for turban, dolband from which the English word is derived.

Among the Sikhs, the dastār is an article of faith that represents equality, honour, self-respect, courage, spirituality, and piety. The Khalsa Sikh men and women, who keep the Five Ks, wear the turban to cover their long, uncut hair (kesh). The Sikhs regard the dastār as an important part of the unique Sikh identity. After the ninth Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur, was sentenced to death by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru created the Khalsa and gave five articles of faith, one of which is unshorn hair, which the dastār covers.




Sunday, December 27, 2020

Rajput Pagdi

Rajputana  Pagdi  

Turbans worn in Rajasthan are referred to as the pagari. They vary in style, colour and size. They also indicate a wearer's social class, caste, region and the occasion it being worn for. Its shape and size may also vary with the climatic conditions of the different regions. Turbans in the hot desert areas are large and loose. Farmers and shepherds, who need constant protection from the elements of nature, wear some of the biggest turbans. The Rajasthani turban also has many practical functions. Exhausted travellers use it as a pillow, a blanket or a towel. It can be used to strain muddy water. An unravelled turban can also be used as a rope to draw water from a well with a bucket.

Prominent styles are pencha, sela and safa, although several local variants exist. A conventional pagari is usually 82 inches long and 8 inches wide. A Safa is shorter and broader. Ordinarily a turban of a single colour is worn. However, turbans of one of more colours may be worn by the elite or during special occasions such as festivals or weddings, etc.Rajasthani turbans are a prominent tourist attraction. Tourists are often encouraged to participate in turban-tying competitions.

The brilliant pages of history, which exhibit the rise of this social clothing follows back to the seventh century that characterized the standard of the Rajputs. It was amid their period when these turbans were inherently designed and weaved with the best strings of cotton and silk and were belittled and advanced as an image of status and character. The Rajput Kings brandished this conventional turban in various hues and styles as per the events in the lofty court.




Marwadi Pagdi

Marwadi Pagdi  

The Rajasthani Pagri is an ethnic turban. The style of draping  the turban varies on the basis of climate conditions of the desert region. Also known as ‘petas’, the Marwari Pagris used to earlier stand for prestige and honor.

Origin and History

The golden pages of history, which showcase the emergence of this cultural attire traces back to 7th century that defined the rule of the Rajputs. It was during their era, when these turbans were intrinsically patterned and weaved with the finest threads of cotton and silk, and were patronized and promoted as a symbol of status and identity. The Rajput Kings sported this traditional turban in different colors and styles in accordance with the occasions in the majestic court.

Styles

There’s an unending plethora of turbans that are are worn by people across Rajasthan. At times, the color of the pagri varies according to the season. Falgunia turbans having white and red designs are sported during spring season, whereas in the month of July, the prominent color is ‘motiya’ or pearl pink. A green and pink striped or yellow and red striped turban in Lehariya prints, is worn in the monsoon.

Occasion Wear

The Marwari turban varies in color and style according to the occasion to be worn to. Dotted turbans in bright colors are worn for marriages and birth ceremonies. Light, sober and dull shades of colors are worn for the prayer meetings of deceased people.

Accessorizing

Sherwani suits and Jodhpuri suits generally compliment the Rajasthan Pagri. Heavily brocaded and embroidered coats and jackets also go well with the Marwari pagris, making the entire appearance and experience rich and majestic.

Suitability

These Pagris are usually worn to occasions like wedding ceremonies, religious gatherings and festive celebrations,  besides others.

Interesting Facts & Comparisons

Turban draping contests are held every year at pushkar festival and other events organized by the state tourism department.

In Hindu Rajput marriages, the bride’s father is made to wear the traditional pagri.

The city of Jaipur boasts of a turban museum, which claims to have one of the largest collections of turbans.










Rajasthani Pagdi

Rajasthani Pagdi  
The Rajasthani Pagri is an ethnic turban. The style of draping the turban varies on the basis of climate conditions of the desert region. Also known as 'petas', the Marwari Pagris used to earlier stand for prestige and honor.

Turbans worn in Rajasthan are referred to as the pagari. They vary in style, colour and size. They also indicate a wearer's social class, caste, region and the occasion it being worn for. Its shape and size may also vary with the climatic conditions of the different regions. Turbans in the hot desert areas are large and loose. Farmers and shepherds, who need constant protection from the elements of nature, wear some of the biggest turbans. The Rajasthani turban also has many practical functions. Exhausted travellers use it as a pillow, a blanket or a towel. It can be used to strain muddy water. An unravelled turban can also be used as a rope to draw water from a well with a bucket.
Prominent styles are pencha, sela and safa, although several local variants exist. A conventional pagari is usually 82 inches long and 8 inches wide. A Safa is shorter and broader. Ordinarily a turban of a single colour is worn. However, turbans of one of more colours may be worn by the elite or during special occasions such as festivals or weddings, etc.Rajasthani turbans are a prominent tourist attraction. Tourists are often encouraged to participate in turban-tying competitions.



Mysore Pheta

 Mysore Pheta  

The Mysuru peta (peta is a Kannada word which means turban in English) is the classical royal Indian attire worn by the erstwhile Kings of Mysuru, called the Wodeyars (1399 to 1947), of the Kingdom of Mysuru. Wodeyars wore a richly bejeweled turban made of silk and jari (gold threaded lace) to match with colorful dresses as part of the royal dress.

Administrators under the King, such as the Dewans' (Prime Minister appointed by the King) and other senior officials who swayed considerable power in matters of state administration also wore the Mysuru peta.

After India became independent in 1947 and the princely state merged with the Indian union, the traditional Mysuru peta has been retained as a symbol of heritage and cultural antecedents and distinguished people are honoured by the award of a Mysore peta with a shawl in formal functions.

Ancient tradition

Kings wore the traditional Mysuru peta as headgear during the Durbar (court of Indian or princley state's kings) time or in a ceremonial procession during the Dassara celebrations and or during joint ceremonial parades with the visiting royal dignitaries from foreign countries.

It was expected that the men attending King's court wore the conventional attire called the durbar dress which comprised a black long coat with white trousers and a compulsory Mysuru peta (turban).

Design

The attractive and colourful turban is a headdress made up of long scarf–like single piece of cloth made of silk or cotton wound round the head cap and is often decorated with jari border (golden or silver laces) and beautiful metal pendants that adds to its glory and grandeur.

In the early 1930s, the "Imperial Hatworks" located in heritage buildings called the Hatworks Boulevard (150 years old history), at No. 32, Cunningham Road, Bengaluru, used to make the "pretied Mysuru peta" for the Maharajah of Mysuru. This place was owned by Manackjee who had set up shop after studying hatmaking in the UK. But this shop closed down a few years after Manackjee's death in 1959. The old–world ambiance of the Hatworks Boulevard has been restored as a minor tourist place with a boutique, French spa, cafe–and–pastry shop, an art gallery (through a tie–up with Crimson Art Gallery), a home furnishing store, an art costume jewellery store and a shop selling custom–made marble pieces.

Social and religious tradition

The people of the Mysuru district and the Kodagu district feel proud to wear turbans called Mysuru peta. In Kodagu district, it is part of the traditional dress worn on special occasions such as weddings. Men wear a turban during religious ceremonies to portray respect and reverence towards the Supreme Being. Distinguished people are honoured by the award of a Mysuru peta in formal functions.








Marathi Pheta

Marathi Pheta  

India has been a land of various cultures and traditions which all come together in a distinct, yet unified way. Different turbans and their unique styles vary from state to state and from one tradition to the next. The Marathi Pheta is a style of wearing a turban, exclusively found in Maharashtra.

This traditional turban of Maharashtra soaked in rich colors of Saffron and White captures the essence of a real Maratha. A symbol of pride and prestige, this head gear is worn as the sign of loyalty and love for the culture, especially during religious functions and wedding occasions.



Origin and History

The royals of Maharashtra since prehistoric times left behind a legacy of wearing a ‘pagdi, in other words a head gear which till date plays a significant role when it comes to traditional costumes and attires for the men living in Maharashtra.

The origin of the traditional crown of Maharashtra can be traced back to the Peshwa Era which witnessed legendary warriors like  Chatrapati shree Shivaji maharaj , Rani Lakshmibai and distinguished personalities like Sant Tukaram and many more. According to certain historical accounts, the Marathi Pheta originated under the benefaction of  chatrapati  shree Shivaji maharaj's rule in a town called Kolhapur, which is today considered as the historical capital of Maharashtra.

The Making of Pheta

In olden days, a traditional Pheta was basically worn by the elder men of the families as a mark of respect and a gesture of gratitude and dignity that it depicted. It was considered to be a cultural custom and a tradition which was earlier regarded mandatory for the Maharashtrian men.

The typical length of a Pheta is usually 3.5 to 6 meters long and has a width of approximately 1 meter. Colors vary depending on the occasion; however the typical ones include Saffron which exhibits valor, and White which represents peace. The fabric used to make the Pheta is mostly Cotton and has gold trimmings on the border which make it look regal.

However, with the passing years, this traditional costume took the form of trend and fashion and gradually became a fashion statement for the changing generations. The obligation was replaced by trend, which made this piece of garment more fashionable in its essence, rather than being plain ritualistic.

These days one may wear a Pheta only when there is a special event, which is contrary to the age old Marathi tradition where it was a mandatory part of the entire outfit, and was to be adorned on a day to day basis.

Varieties

Other than the traditional white and Saffron encrusted Pheta, there are two major varieties available. One is the famous Kolhapuri Pheta, which comes in a multitude of colors and has a Bandhani effect on it. The other major variety consists of the Puneri Pheta which comes in checkered patterns and has a distinct gold border.

Style

There are different styles of draping a Pheta that is determined by the nature of the place or the location and even famous personalities. For instance, if we take the example of places, there are styles like the Kolhapuri style, Mawali style, Puneri style, Lahiri style and many more.

On the other hand, style and varieties are also connected to distinguished persons like Shahi Pheta, Mahatma Gandhi Pheta, Tukaram Maharaj Pheta and many such varied and popular styles. This simple piece of fabric is draped around the head in 6 to 7 rounds with a little piece of the turban hanging loose like a tail which is called as Shemala. Some Pheta cloths are plain and single-colored, whereas few are lined and double-colored.

Innovations

In today’s day and age, the traditional Phetas are given a trendier and a youthful feel which not only enchants the youth but can also be worn to flaunt a traditional style and appeal.

Today’s western version of Phetas are more colorful, reversible, adjustable and come in different metallic and satin fabrics which have replaced the mundane, ear warming head gears. The vibrant nature of the turban makes it ideal for any party or occasion.

Wearing Pheta

Marathi Pheta when donned gives the wearer a noble and distinct look which automatically speaks for itself without the need of any additional adornments. If we follow the traditional roots of Maharashtra, then this head gear completes the typical Marathi dress, consisting of Kurta-Pajamas along with Kolhapuri Slip ons.

Weddings, religious ceremonies or cultural events which mark a distinction for the Marathi men seem incomplete without the Marathi Petha, which only adds to the cultural and traditional charm of Maharashtra. Besides weddings and other traditional and religious ceremonies, the Mysore Phetas also enhance the ambiance during Indian festivals like Gudi Padwa, Diwali, Dussehra, etc. The latest fashionable turbans can also be worn at formal, semi-formal and casual events, crediting to its flexibility and elegance.

Maintenance

Since it is made out of Cotton, maintaining a Pheta is not difficult and a normal hand or machine wash would be fine to keep the cloth free of any adulteration.

Interesting Facts and Comparisons

Mordern headgears like caps and hats always stand as a pillar of competition against these ethnic headgears.

The Pheta is usually named after a town, for example Kohlapuri Pheta is named after the town Kolhapur

The Pheta is considered a matter of pride and honor

Another term for the Pheta is ‘Pataka’




Kolhapuri Pheta

Kolhapuri Pheta   

Pheta (Feta) i.e. Turban is a specialty in Kolhapur. Wearing a turban is high respect.It is a customary honor to guest who comes from other place is welcomed by the offering him to wear the traditional turban. Actually the turban is a long cloth off 3.5 to 6 meters. It is the specific Saffron color is most choice for Kolhapuri turbans. Except this many other varieties are also. Some of lined varieties of the turban are called as Lahiri Feta. In previous period it was customary. Forefathers from many families where using turban in their costume. And it was a part of the Male costume. Wearing turban is an art. Turban is plane cloth had majored by width 1 metre x 4 metres in length. It is folded in six or seven folds in width after which an end of one-fourth meter is given as tail which is known as Shemala. This part of tail blows on air while riding on vehicle especially to Wheeler. The style of the heroes is recorded in many Marathi Cinema. The turban is wrapped on Head with a special style. Last tend of turban is portion of Michael. It decorates leading personality so it is the custom that many family ceremonials are insisted fit us. Muscular bodied wrestlers wearing a special and Festival clothes are decorative road streams is a heritage of City. Except this during festivals as like Dasara, Diwali & Padwa, use of the turban is a common trend.


Mavali Pagdi

Mavali Pagdi  

Once you wear it, everyone must say WOW !! It will carry your appearance toward history and symbol of honour, Everybody must have Item for collection and fascinate your family,Eye-catching Pagari carry with them our age old traditions that keep us connected to our roots and make us enjoy our vibrant cultures.The pagadi is used mostly on special occasions like wedding ceremonies and traditional days in schools and colleges. Youngsters wear it while performing the gondhal art form. The pagadi, being a symbol of honour, is also used as a souvenir. It also finds usage in period films and theatres. Once you wear the Pagadi all people will charm to you.Mavali traditional wear Pheta Pagdi Hat Ethnic Wear Safa Pheta Turban Pagadi is very attractive for collection as well as attract people. traditional Mavali Pagadi Pheta-Red Marathi Worrier Pheta ,turban,pagadi Easy to wear, High qualty, historical look,best turban, pheta

Care Instructions

 Dry Clean Only

Easy to wear, High qualty, historical look,best turban, pheta

The pagadi is used mostly on special occasions like wedding ceremonies and traditional days in schools and colleges.

Youngsters wear it while performing the gondhal art form.

The pagadi, being a symbol of honour, is also used as a souvenir. It also finds usage in period films and theatres.




Saturday, December 26, 2020

Tukaram Pagdi

Tukaram Pagdi   

The royals of Maharashtra since prehistoric times left behind a legacy of wearing a ‘pagdi, in other words a head gear which till date plays a significant role when it comes to traditional costumes and attires for the men living in Maharashtra.

The origin of the traditional crown of Maharashtra can be traced back to the Peshwa Era which witnessed legendary warriors like Chatrapati Shivaji, Rani Lakshmibai and distinguished personalities like Sant Tukaram and many more. According to certain historical accounts, the Marathi Pheta originated under the benefaction of Shivaji’s rule in a town called Kolhapur, which is today considered as the historical capital of Maharashtra.

On the other hand, style and varieties are also connected to distinguished persons like Shahi Pheta, Mahatma Gandhi Pheta, Tukaram Maharaj Pheta and many such varied and popular styles. This simple piece of fabric is draped around the head in 6 to 7 rounds with a little piece of the turban hanging loose like a tail which is called as Shemala. Some Pheta cloths are plain and single-colored, whereas few are lined and double-colored.

Sant Tukaram traditional wear Pheta Pagdi Hat Ethnic Wear Safa Pheta Turban Pagadi is very attractive for collection as well as attract people. traditional Sant Tukaram Pagadi Varkari Sant Tukaram Maharaj Pagadi, Turban, Safa, Pheta, Pagari Easy to wear, High qualty, historical look,best turban, pheta.

Holker Pagdi

Holker Pagdi    

The Holkar dynasty was a Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India.The Holkars were generals under Peshwa Baji Rao I, and later became Maharajas of Indore in Central India as an independent member of the Maratha Empire until 1818. Later, their kingdom became a princely state under the protectorate of British India.

The dynasty was founded with Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire in 1721, and quickly rose to the rank of Subedar. The name of the dynasty was associated with the title of the ruler, who was known informally as Holkar Maharaja.

The Holkars were great connoisseurs of art and they were great collectors as well who were famous for their collections of jewellery and cars. After the fall of the great Mughal Empire, the Holkars of Indore gained greater control in the late 1900s. The Holkars, who were actually goatherds or Dhangar later developed into one of the most powerful royalties in India. The Holkars inhabited a region that was the most fertile in arid Central India and made Indore their capital. After a tumultuous period during their war with the British and the Scindias, the Holkars signed the Treaty of Mahidpur in 1818 in which they settled down to rule peacefully. This is the time when the Holkars amassed a huge collection of jewellery which was later lost and vanished without a trace.

Maharaja Yeshwantrao Holkar was a great patron of jewellery and French jewelers such as Van Clef, Arpels, Chaumet and Moubassin and had special exquisite jewellery pieces crafted from them. The most popular jewellery pieces in the Holkar collection have been the bejeweled dazzling peacock turban, the Indore Pears, the Jonker and Porter Rhodes diamonds amongst many other such pieces.

The fabled peacock bejeweled turban was one such exquisite masterpiece crafted out of rubies, diamonds, emeralds, sapphires and pearls that was specially made by European goldsmiths in order to give the impression of a crown on a turban. Another fabled artifact was the bejeweled walking stick of the Holkars whose elephant-shaped handle was made out of one single ruby.


Shinde Shahi Pagdi

Shinde Shahi Pagdi   

The Scindias are a royal Maratha Kunbi clan in India that belong to the state of Madhya Pradesh. This clan comprised of the rulers of the state of Gwalior during the 18th and 19th centuries who later went on to collaborate with the British Rulers between 19-20th century till the time of independence.

Origin and History

Gwalior has been ruled by the Scindia clan and also has the distinction of having been one of the most developed states of India. Gwalior has a very old and magnificent history as its name is derived from the erstwhile town of Gwalior also known and Gawalier. Gwalior has been ruled by many Rajput dynasties and also by the Mughals. The Scindia dynasty was founded by Ranoji Scindia. However, the association of the Scindias with Gwalior commenced at a time when the Mughals started to lose their prominence due to the rise of the Marathas under the leadership of raje Shivaji maharaj. However, Shivaji’ maharaj untimely death passed the power on to the Peshwas which was later grasped by Mahadji Scindia, who was a great statesman and a general. He opposed the English, but later initiated an alliance with them, which brought about a lot of advantages to him in terms of his career and power.

Style

The essential traditional royal garb of the Scindias has been the trademark head dress that has always been donned on special occasions by the royal members of the Scindia family, particularly during festivals, religious occasions and marriages. The menfolk usually dressed up in traditional finery ranging from the ‘Anga’ which is a long coat that appears like a kurta made up of Silk and Brocade with the ‘Pagadi’ and a sheathed sword. This was the traditional attire worn during the 16th and 17th centuries, be it for a religious ceremony or a formal dinner.

In India it is easy to distinguish a male royal figure of one state from another by the way they wear the turban or pagadi. This head gear is considered to be an indication of respect, honour, brotherhood and chivalry and was an absolute essential. The material for the pagadi could be anything from fine muslin to chanderi and brocade. The Maharaja of Gwalior had a very unique pagri that was in the shape of a boat called the ‘Shindeshahi pagri’ which gave the clan its unique identity.



Peshwai Pagdi

Peshwai Pagdi   

Peshwai Pagdi that is made available in pattern, design, enormous color and size as clients special demand. This pagdi was worn by Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa and from their name it is known as Peshwai pagdi before it was known as Pagote .

Our offered pagdi crafted using premium quality fabric under the proper guidance of our adroit designer with the aid of the advanced weaving techniques. This pagdi provided by us is the perfect attire for wedding due to its eye-catching look. In addition, offered pagdi is made available at the most reasonable rates.

The famous Bajirao Peshwa pagdi from the movie "Bajirao Mastani" is manufactured from  Murudkar Zendewale shop which is in pune. This pagdi is specially hand stitched and decorated to get the aura of Bajirao Peshwa. It is made up of rich satin silk material. Good quality pearl strings and brooch(kalgi) adds the glory to this pagdi. For functions, weddings, events and ceremonies Bajirao Peshwa pagdi is a must item  for your traditional costumes.

The  Peshwai  pagadi is used mostly on special occasions like wedding ceremonies and traditional days in schools and colleges. Youngsters wear it while performing the gondhal art form. The Peshwai  pagadi, being a symbol of honour, is also used as a souvenir. It also finds usage in period films and theatres.


Friday, December 25, 2020

पुणेरी पगडी

पुणेरी पगडी     

पुणेरी पगडीचे वैशिष्य आणि इतिहास

महाराष्ट्रात पूर्वी फेटा, टोपी, मुंडासे किंवा इतर वगैरे डोक्याला बांधल्याशिवाय घराबाहेर पडायचे नाही अशी पद्धत होती. त्यातल्या त्यात मग समाजातील स्थानानूरुप डोक्यावरचे शिरस्त्राण बदलले जायचे. याचाच एक भाग म्हणजे पुणेरी पगडी. पणेरी पगडीला पेशवाई पार्श्वभूमी आहे. 

पुणेरी पगडी हा एक महाराष्ट्रातील पगडीचा प्रकार आहे. या पगडीचा उगम पेशव्यांच्या काळात झाला. त्यानंतर महाराष्ट्रातील न्यायमूर्ती रानडे, लोकमान्य टिळक, गोपाळ कृष्ण गोखले, गोपाळ गणेश आगरकर, इत्यादी विद्वान व्यक्ती ही पगडी घालत होते. आजही पुण्यात पुणेरी पगडी हे मानाचे प्रतीक आहे. पगडीची ओळख कायम राखण्यासाठी लोकांनी तिला भोगोलिक वैशिष्ट्य म्हणून मान्यता मिळण्यावी मागणी केली. ४ सप्टेंबर २००९ रोजी त्यांची मागणी पूर्ण झाली आणि पुणेरी पगडी ही बौद्धिक मालमत्ता म्हणून जाहीर झाली.

पुणेरी पगडीची ओळख...

पुणेरी पगडीच्या वरच्या भागाला माथा म्हणतात. उजव्या बाजूला असणारा उंच भाग म्हणजे कोका आणि त्याचे टोक म्हणजे चोच. पगडीचे देखणेपण हे या चोचीवर उवलंबून असते. चोचीला असलेला गोंडा म्हणजे जरतार. पगडीच्या कडेच्या पट्टीला घेरा म्हटले जाते. घेर्‍याखाली कपाळावर येणार्‍या भागाला कमल, तर आतील भागाला गाभा म्हटले जाते. पगडीवर केलेले जवाहिरी काम आणि जरतार यांवर त्या पगडीची किंमत ठरत असते.

पुणेरी पगडीचा इतिहास...

१९व्या शतकात महादेव गोविंद रानडे यांनी पुणेरी पगडी घालण्यास सुरुवात केली, असे म्हणतात. त्यानंतर लोकमान्य टिळक, तात्यासाहेब केळकर, दत्तो वामन पोतदार यांनीसुद्धा ही पगडी घातली. १९७३च्या घाशीराम कोतवाल ह्या नाटकानंतर पुणेरी पगडी अधिक प्रसिद्ध झाली.

पगडीचा लाल रंग...

सध्या तयार स्वरूपात मिळणारी पुणेरी पगडी ही पूर्वी कापड घेऊन बांधली जात होती. यासाठी माती किंवा प्लॅस्टर ऑफ पॅरिसपासून डोक्याच्या आकाराचा साचा बनवण्यात येत यायचा. त्या साचावर कोष्टी म्हणजे विणकर समाजातील कारागीर दर पंधरा दिवसांनी घरोघरी जाऊन पगडी बांधून द्यायचे. सुती कापडाची लाल रंगाची पट्टी, त्याला बत्ती कापड असे म्हटले म्हणत, ती कांजीत बुडवून त्याची घट्ट बांधलेली पगडी पंधरा दिवस टिकायची. या कापडामुळेच लाल रंग हा देखील पडीचा ओळख बनला.

पद्धतही बदलली, मूळ स्वरूप तसेच टिकवून....

बाजाराच्या मागणीनुसार रंग, कापड यांत आता काळानुसार फरक पडला आहे. पगडी तयार करण्याची पद्धतही बदलली आहे. मात्र त्याचे मूळ स्वरूप तसेच टिकवून आहे. पुण्यातील मुरूडकर झेंडेवाले हे तीन पिढ्यांपासून पगडीची परंपरा जपत आले आहेत. आता प्लॅस्टर ऑफ पॅरिसच्या साच्यावरून कागदी लगद्याचा साचा तयार केला जातो आणि त्यावर कापड, स्पंज वापरून पगडी तयार केली जाते व तिला आतून अस्तर लावले जाते. रेशीम किंवा सॅटिनच्या पगडीला अधिक मागणी असते. भगवी, जांभळी, राणी कलर, मोतिया अशा अनेक रंगात पगडी तयार केली जात असली तरीही त्याच्या मूळ लाल रंगाकडेच ग्राहकांचा ओढा आहे. गणेशोत्सवात गणेशमूर्तीला घालण्यासाठी तसेच, पांडुरंगाच्या मूर्तीसाठीही पगडी तयार केली जाते.


Wednesday, December 23, 2020

Embroidery of India

Embroidery of India  

Embroidery in India includes dozens of embroidery styles that vary by region and clothing styles. Designs in Indian embroidery are formed on the basis of the texture and the design of the fabric and the stitch. The dot and the alternate dot, the circle, the square, the triangle, and permutations and combinations of these constitute the design.

Aari

Aari work involves a hook, plied from the top but fed by silk thread from below with the material spread out on a frame. This movement creates loops, and repeats of these lead to a line of chain stitches.The fabric is stretched on a frame and stitching is done with a long needle ending with a hook such as a crewel, tambour (a needle similar to a very fine crochet hook but with a sharp point)or Luneville work. The other hand feeds the thread from the underside, and the hook brings it up, making a chainstitch, but it is much quicker than chainstitch done in the usual way: looks like machine-made and can also be embellished with sequins and beads - which are kept on the right side, and the needle goes inside their holes before plunging below, thus securing them to the fabric.there are many types of materials used like zari threads, embellishments,siquins etc..

 Banjara embroidery

Practiced by the Lambada  gypsy tribes of Andhra Pradesh, Banjara embroidery is a mix of applique with mirrors and beadwork. Bright red, yellow, black and white coloured cloth is laid in bands and joined with a white criss-cross stitch. The Banjaras of Madhya Pradesh who are found in the districts of Malwa and Nimar have their own style of embroidery where designs are created according to the weave of the cloth, and the textured effect is achieved by varying colours and stitches of the geometric patterns and designs. Motifs are generally highlighted by cross-stitch.

Banni or Heer Bharat (Gujarat)

The Banni or Heer Bharat embroidery originates in Gujarat, and is practiced mainly by the Lohana community. It is done with silk floss (Heer means "silk floss") and it is famous for its vibrancy and richness in color pallets & design patterns, which include shisha (mirror) work. Bagh and phulkari embroidery of the Punjab region has influenced Heer Bharat embroidery in its use of geometrical motifs and stitchery.

Chamba Rumal (Himachal Pradesh)

Is originated in chamba kingdom of Himachal Pradesh in 17th century. This embroidery flourished in the princely hill states of Kangra, Chamba, Basholi, and other neighbouring provinces. Chamba region has highly skilled craftsmen.

Chikankari (Uttar Pradesh)

The present form of chikan (meaning elegant patterns on fabric) work is associated with the city of Lucknow, in Uttar Pradesh. Chikan embroidery on silk is Lucknow's own innovation. The other chikan styles are that of Calcutta and Dacca. However, characteristic forms of stitch were developed in Lucknow: phanda and murri.

Chikan embroidery is believed to have been introduced by Nur Jahan, the wife of Jahangir. Chikan embroidery involves the use of white thread on white muslin (tanzeb), fine cotton (mulmul), or voile, fine almost sheer fabrics which showcases shadow work embroidery the best. Other colours can also be used.

The artisans usually create individual motifs or butis of animals and flowers (rose, lotus, jasmine, creepers). The designs are first printed onto the fabric not with chaulk, but with a mixture of glue and indigo.

At least 40 different stitches are documented, of which about 30 are still practiced today and include flat, raised and embossed stitches, and the open trellis-like jaali work. Some of the stitches that are used in Chikankari work include: taipchi, pechni, pashni, bakhia (ulta bakhia and sidhi bakhia), gitti, jangira, murri, phanda, jaalis etc. In English: chain stitch, buttonhole stitch, French knots and running stitch, shadow work. Another is the khatao (also called khatava or katava).

Gota (Jaipur, Rajasthan)

It is a form of appliqué in gold thread, used for women’s formal attire. Small pieces of zari ribbon are applied onto the fabric with the edges sewn down to create elaborate patterns. Lengths of wider golden ribbons are stitched on the edges of the fabric to create an effect of gold zari work. Khandela in Shekhawati is famous for its manufacture. The Muslim community uses Kinari or edging, a fringed border decoration. Gota-kinari practiced mainly in Jaipur, utilising fine shapes of bird, animals, human figures which are cut and sewn on to the material.it is very famous in rajasthan as well as in many other parts of the world.

Kamal kadai(Andhra Pradesh)

Is a embroidery from native Andhra Pradesh. Woven Trellis stitch is used to make flowers and leaves and other stitches are done on fabric to complete the embroidery. 

Kantha (Bengal)

Naksha is embroidery on many layers of cloth (like quilting), with running stitch. It is also known as dorukha which mean the designs/motifs are equally visible in both sides: there is no right or wrong side so both side are usable. Traditionally, worn out clothes and saris were piled together and stitched into quilts. Rural Bengali women still do this with cotton saris, the embroidery thread being taken from the sari border. It started as a method of making quilts, but the same type of embroidery can also be found on saris, salwar suits, stoles, napkins, etc. Themes include human beings, animals, flowers, geometric designs and mythological figures.

Karchobi - Rajasthan

It is a raised zari metallic thread embroidery created by sewing flat stitches on cotton padding.This technique is commonly used for bridal and formal costumes as well as for velvet coverings, tent hangings, curtains and the coverings of animal carts and temple chariots.

Kasuti or Kasuthi (Karnataka)

Kasuti (Kai=hand and Suti = cotton) comes from the state of Karnataka, Kasuti is originated in Karnataka during chalukya period (6th to 12th century)  and done with single thread and involves counting of each thread on the cloth. The patterns are stitched without knots, so that both sides of the cloth look alike. Stitches like Gavanti, Murgi, Negi and Menthi form intricate patterns like gopura, chariot, palanquin, lamps and conch shells, as well as peacocks and elephants, in fixed designs and patterns.

Kathi (Gujarat)

Kathi embroidery was introduced by 'Kathi' the cattle breeders, who were wanderers. This technique combines chain stitch, appliqué work and mirror-like insertions.

Kaudi(Karnataka)

Kaudi (ಕೌದಿ) is a blanket or bedspread and applique embroidery from northern parts of Karnataka. Old Fabrics are cut into pieces and stitched with simple running stitch.

Khneng(meghalaya)

Is a embroidery from meghalaya. Mustoh village is only known place for khneng embroidery and the embroidery is traditionally Done on eri silk shawls. 

Kutch or Aribharat

The best known of the Kutch (Gujarat) embroidery techniques is Aribharat, named after the hooked needle which forms the chainstitch. It is also known as Mochibharat, as it used to be done by mochis (cobblers).

Kutchi bharat/Sindhi stitch (Gujarat)

A variation of Kutch work, this geometric embroidery starts with a foundation framework of herringbone stitch or Cretan stitch, and then this framework is completely filled with interlacing. It is said that this technique originated in far away land of Armenia and found its way to Gujarat by travelling Nomads. Sindhi stitch or Maltese cross stitch is also similar but the innovation of the Kutchi women have taken it beyond the traditional designs... Kutch work.

Kashmiri Kashida

Kashmiri embroidery (also Kashida) is originated during Mughal period and used for phirans (woollen kurtas) and namdahs (woollen rugs) as well as stoles. It draws inspiration from nature. Birds, blossoms and flowers, creepers, chinar leaves, ghobi, mangoes, lotus, and trees are the most common themes. The entire pattern is made with one or two embroidery stitches, and mainly chain stitch on a base of silk, wool and cotton: the colour is usually white, off-white or cream but nowadays one can find stoles and salwar-kameez sets in many other colours such as brown, deep blue, sky blue, maroon and rani pink. Kashida is primarily done on canvas with crystal threads, but Kashida also employs pashmina and leather threads. Apart from clothes, it's found on home furnishings like bed spreads, sofa and floor cushions, and pillow covers.

The base cloth, whether wool or cotton, is generally white or cream or a similar shade. Pastel colors are also often used. The craftsmen use shades that blend with the background. Thread colors are inspired by local flowers. Only one or two stitches are employed on one fabric.

Kashmiri embroidery is known for the skilled execution of a single stitch, which is often called the Kashmiri stitch and which may comprise the chain stitch, the satin stitch, the slanted darn stitch, the stem stitch, and the herringbone stitch. Sometimes, the doori (knot) stitches are used but not more than one or two at a time.

Kashmiri stitches

The stitches include sozni (satin), zalakdozi (chain) and vata chikan (button hole). Other styles include dorukha in which the motif appears on both sides of the shawl with each side having a different color; papier-mâché; aari (hook) embroidery; shaaldaar; chinar-kaam; samovar (the antique Kashimiri tea-pot) is a very typical and popular design used in Kashmiri embroidery. The samovar pattern is then filled up with intricate flowers and leaves and twigs; Kashir-jaal which implies fine network of embroidery, particularly on the neckline and sleeves of a dress material.

Further styles include naala jaal which involves embroidery particularly on the neckline and chest/yoke: naala means neck in the Koshur dialect of Kashmiri language; jaama is a very dense embroidery covering the whole base fabric with a thick spread of vine/creepers and flowers, badaam and heart shapes, a variation of this form is neem-jaama, where neem means demi or half, because the embroidery is less dense, allowing a view of the fabric underneath; and jaal consisting of bel-buti: a fine and sparse net of vine/creepers and flowers. Variation of this form is neem-jaal, where again the work is less dense.

Phulkari (Punjab and Haryana)

Phulkari (Phul=flower, Kari=work) is originated in the late 17th century in Punjab region. the most famous rural embroidery tradition of Punjab, mentioned in the Punjabi folklore of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah. Its present form and popularity goes back to 15th century, during Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s reign Phulkari also means headscarf, and it comes from the 19th century tradition of carrying an odhani or a head-scarf with flower patterns. Its distinctive property is that the base is a dull hand-spun or khadi cloth, with bright coloured threads that cover it completely, leaving no gaps. It uses a darn stitch done from the wrong side of the fabric using darning needles, one thread at a time, leaving a long stitch below to form the basic pattern. Famous for Phulkari are the cities of Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ambala,Ludhiana, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, and Kapurthala. Other cities include Gurgaon (Haryana), Karnal, Hissar, Rohtak and Delhi. Bagh is an offshoot of phulkari and almost always follows a geometric pattern, with green as its basic colour.

Pipli (Odisha)

Appliqué or Pipli work originates from the Pipli village in Odisha and some parts of Gujarat. It is called Chandua based on patchwork: brightly coloured and patterned fabric pieces are sewn together on a plain background mostly velvet along with Mirror and lace work. Designs include Hindu gods, human forms, animals, flowers and vehicles. Originally Chandua work was done to built the chariots for Puri Rath Yatra and was also used for parasols, canopies and pillows for the Rath Yatra. Nowadays different home décor items can be found, such as lamp shades, garden umbrellas and bed covers and utility products like Hand bags, Wallets, Files.

Rabari (Rajasthan and Gujarat)

This embroidery style is made by the Rabari or Rewari community of Rajasthan and Gujarat. This very colourful embroidery style, using stark contrast was traditionally used only for garments, but now it can be found on bags, accessories, home furnishings, etc. Mirrors of all shapes and sizes are incorporated in the embroidery, as a result of the belief that mirrors protect from evil spirits. Designs include not only flowers and fruit and animals such as parrots and elephants, but also temples, women carrying pots, and the ubiquitus mango shape.

Shisha or Mirrorwork (Gujarat, Haryana, Rajasthan)

This ornamentation method originated in Persia during 13th century and involves little pieces of mirror in various sizes which are encased in the decoration of the fabric first by interlacing threads and then with buttonhole stitch.Originally, pieces of mica were used as the mirrors, but later, people started using thin blown-glass pieces, hence the name, which in Hindi means "little glass".[citation needed] Until recently they were all irregular, made by hand, and used mercury, nowadays one can also find them machine made and regularly shaped. It's usually found in combination with other types of stitches like cross stitch, buttonhole stitch and satin stitch, nowadays not only by hand but also by machine. Mirrorwork is very popular for cushion covers and bedcovers, purses and decorative hangings as well as in decorative borders in women's salwar-kameez and sari. Thousands of women from kutch (Gujarat) and sikar, churu (Rajasthan) are engaged in doing hand embroidery work like tie, mirror work, beads on fabric.There are various types of Chikan work: Taipchi, Bakhia, Phunda, Murri, Jaali, Hathkati, Pechni, Ghas Patti, and Chaana Patti.

Toda embroidery

The Toda embroidery has its origins in Tamil Nadu. The Nilgiri Hills, inhabited by the Todu community have their own style called pugur, means flower. This embroidery, like Kantha, is practiced by women.

The embroidery adorns the shawls. The shawl, called poothkuli, has red and black bands between which the embroidery is done. As Todas worship the buffaloes, buffalo becomes an important motif in the Toda embroidery among mettvi kaanpugur, Izhadvinpuguti and others. Stylized sun, moon, stars and the eye of the peacock feathers are used in Toda embroidery.

Zardozi or Zari or kalabattu

The most opulent form of Indian embroidery is the Zari and the Zardozi or Zardosi, known since the late 16th century, brought in India by the Moghuls. The word Zardozi comes from the two Persian words Zar & gold and Dozi & embroidery. This form uses metallic thread

Once real gold and silver thread was used, on silk, brocade and velvet fabric. Metal ingots were melted and pressed through perforated steel sheets to convert into wires, which then were hammered to the required thinness. Plain wire is called 'badla', and when wound round a thread, it is called 'kasav'. Smaller spangles are called 'sitara' and tiny dots made of badla are called 'mukais' or 'mukesh'.






























Tuesday, December 22, 2020

Necktie

Necktie   

A necktie, or simply a tie, is a long piece of cloth, worn, usually by men, for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat.

Variants include the ascot, bow, bolo, zipper, cravat, and knit. The modern necktie, ascot, and bow tie are descended from the cravat. Neckties are generally unsized, but may be available in a longer size. In some cultures men and boys wear neckties as part of regular office attire or formal wear. Some women wear them as well but usually not as often as men. Neckties can also be worn as part of a uniform (e.g. military, school, waitstaff), whereas some choose to wear them as everyday clothing attire. Neckties are traditionally worn with the top shirt button fastened, and the tie knot resting between the collar points.

The necktie that spread from Europe traces back to Croatian mercenaries serving in France during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). These mercenaries from the Croatian Military Frontier, wearing their traditional small, knotted neckerchiefs, aroused the interest of the Parisians. Because of the difference between the Croatian word for Croats, Hrvati, and the French word, Croates, the garment gained the name cravat (cravate in French). The boy-king Louis XIV began wearing a lace cravat around 1646, when he was seven, and set the fashion for French nobility. This new article of clothing started a fashion craze in Europe; both men and women wore pieces of fabric around their necks. From its introduction by the French king, men wore lace cravats, or jabots, that took a large amount of time and effort to arrange. These cravats were often tied in place by cravat strings, arranged neatly and tied in a bow.




Waistcoat

Waistcoat   

A waistcoat in BrE (/ˈwɛskət/ or /ˈweɪstkoʊt/; colloquially called a weskit), or vest in AmE, is a sleeveless upper-body garment. It is usually worn over a dress shirt and necktie and below a coat as a part of most men's formal wear. It is also sported as the third piece in the traditional three-piece male lounge suit. Any given vest can be simple or ornate, or for leisure or luxury. Historically, the vest can be worn either in the place of or underneath a larger coat dependent upon the weather, wearer, and setting.

Daytime formal wear and semi-formal wear commonly comprises a contrastingly coloured waistcoat, such as in buff or dove gray, still seen in morning dress and black lounge suit. For white tie and black tie, it is traditionally white and black, respectively.

The term waistcoat is used in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries.The term vest is used widely in the United States and Canada, and is often worn as part of formal attire or as the third piece of a lounge suit in addition to a jacket and trousers. The term vest derives from the French language veste “jacket, sport coat", the term for a vest-waistcoat in French today being "gilet", the Italian language veste "robe, gown", and the Latin language vestis. The term vest in European countries refers to the A-shirt, a type of athletic vest. The Banyan, a garment of India, is commonly called a vest in Indian English.

A waistcoat has a full vertical opening in the front, which fastens with buttons or snaps. Both single-breasted and double-breasted waistcoats exist, regardless of the formality of dress, but single-breasted ones are more common. In a three piece suit, the cloth used matches the jacket and trousers. Waistcoats can also have lapels or revers depending on the style.

Before wristwatches became popular, gentlemen kept their pocket watches in the front waistcoat pocket, with the watch on a watch chain threaded through a buttonhole. Sometimes an extra hole was made in line with the pockets for this use. A bar on the end of the chain held it in place to catch the chain if it were dropped or pulled.

Wearing a belt with a waistcoat, and indeed any suit, is not traditional. To give a more comfortable hang to the trousers, the waistcoat instead covers a pair of braces (suspenders in the U.S.) underneath it.

A custom still sometimes practised is to leave the bottom button undone. This is said to have been started by King Edward VII (then the Prince of Wales), whose expanding waistline required it. Variations on this include that he forgot to fasten the lower button when dressing and this was copied. It has also been suggested that the practice originated to prevent the waistcoat riding up when on horseback. Undoing the bottom button avoids stress to the bottom button when sitting down; when it is fastened, the bottom of the waistcoat pulls sideways causing wrinkling and bulging, since modern waistcoats are cut lower than old ones. This convention only applies to single-breasted day waistcoats and not double breasted, evening, straight-hem or livery waistcoats that are all fully buttoned.

Waiters, sometimes also waitresses, and other people working at white-tie events, to distinguish themselves from guests, sometimes wear gray tie, which consists of the dress coat of white tie (a squarely cut away tailcoat) with the black waistcoat and tie of black tie.




Pullover

 Pullover  

Pullover (from the English pull over for (the) overcoat , also called sweater for short ) is the name for a frequently knitted item of clothing for the upper body with long sleeves , which usually has to be pulled over the head . Another name for this is jumper .

The word comes from English and means overcoat ( to pull = to pull, over = over). The term sweater only entered the German vocabulary around 1817 .

Since around 1950 the word sweater , which was originally used to describe a sweater , has been used almost synonymously. Today in everyday parlance mostly only knitted sweaters are referred to as sweaters. Similar to pullovers, made of finely knitted sweatshirt material are called sweatshirts . Brightly patterned sweaters are usually called jacquard sweaters after Joseph-Marie Jacquard .

In today's adolescents and young adults are sweatshirts total of often more popular than knitting sweaters. Sweatshirts have developed into basic components of contemporary fashion (basics). In the course of further developments in the fashion sector, the formerly classic word “pullover” now also refers to garments that not only have traditional features (e.g. long sleeves). In the course of a liberalization of the definition, cardigans or polo shirts with long sleeves are also called pullovers, which is technically incorrect, however. Accordingly, the traditional notion of “pulling over your head” as a mandatory reference point for determination is no longer up-to-date.

Due to their flat surface, thin pullovers / sweatshirts are suitable for printing, so they are available as fan relics and with various motifs and slogans. Some of the lettering or motifs are also embroidered or sewn on. Brand-oriented people of the younger and middle generation like to wear sweatshirts with bold brand logos . Sweatshirts are also available with attached hoods ( hoodies ). Sweatshirts have a sportier image.

Sweaters are made from many textile fibers, such as B. Virgin wool , cashmere wool , silk and cotton . Additions of synthetic fibers such as polyacrylic are widely used to improve dimensional stability.

The most common are the V-neckline (including, depending on the style of clothing, T-shirt , polo shirt , shirt or shirt with tie), the round neckline and the half-high neckline, or "mockneck". There is also the boat neckline and the turtleneck . Short-sleeved sweaters are a special form.  Sweaters with zippers, on the other hand, usually do not have a collar.


Monday, December 21, 2020

Bathrobe

Bathrobe  

A bathrobe, also known as a housecoat, is a robe, a loose-fitting outer garment, worn by people. Bathrobes may sometimes be worn after a body wash or around a pool.

A bathrobe is a dressing gown made from towelling or other absorbent fabric and may be donned while the wearer's body is wet, serving both as a towel and a body covering when there is no immediate need to fully dress.

Styles of fabrics

Bathrobes are generally made of four different fabrics

Cotton: Cotton is a natural fibre consisting primarily of cellulose and is one of the most commonly used fibres in textile manufacturing. Due to the hydrophilic nature of cellulose, cotton absorbs water easily and is frequently used by the beach, pool, or following a shower. Cotton robes are especially suited to use in hot climates because cotton tends to absorb perspiration.

Silk: Silk dressing gowns are popular because of their look and feel, but can be relatively expensive. Silk robes are very thin and lightweight, and are not particularly suited to wet situations because they lack the surface area and polarity necessary to absorb water. However, silk dressing gowns are the traditional choice, since they are not worn after bathing.

Microfiber: Microfiber is an extremely fine synthetic fiber, typically made of cellulose or polyester, that can be woven into textiles to mimic natural-fiber cloth. Modern microfibers are developed to maximize breathability and water absorption and can be thinner than the width of human hair. Much like silk, robes made out of microfiber are light in weight and are very soft to the touch. Microfiber is flammable.

Wool: Wool bathrobes are common in colder climates

.Nylon: Nylon is a synthetic fibre occasionally used in inexpensive dressing gowns. It is valued for its ability to be cleaned easily.

Styles of collars

Shawl collar: So called because the collar closes about the neck just like a shawl. The shawl collar is borrowed from its use on men's evening wear, the dinner jacket and smoking jacket, and is common on traditional dressing gowns.

Kimono: This is a traditional Japanese garment and the name literally translates to ‘thing to wear’.

Hooded: A hood is sewn into the neckline, which can be worn over the head to keep it warm and help dry wet hair.

Styles of sculpture

The sculpture refers to the texture or styling of the bathrobe's fabric. The sculpture of a robe not only provides aesthetic appeal but also affects the absorbency and the hang of the item. The sculpture is a pattern sewn into the terry cloth, velour, or other fabric that reduces bulk, increases suppleness, and yields a more graceful hang on thicker styles. There are several varieties of fabric sculptures for robes.

Window Pane: A box or checkerboard pattern in various sizes

Zig Zag: A plush, repeating "Z" pattern

Ribbed: A sculpture design that yields alternating vertical lines of plush material and sewn material

Waves: Similar to the Zig Zag sculpture, but with gentler angles

Design

Each bathrobe has been differently designed with the collar and waist main features.

Most robes are fitted with a belt that ties looped through the waist to fit all sizes. A popular style is a kimono relaxed collar, as is the shawl design too, but it all depends on how you like to be covered

Long Bath: Terry bathrobe.

Pure: Organic robe.

Relaxed: Linen robe.

Easy Care: Lightweight bamboo robe.

Bamboo: Bamboo cotton fiber.





Jumper

Jumper 

A jumper or jumper dress  pinafore dress or informally pinafore or pinny is a sleeveless, collarless dress intended to be worn over a blouse, shirt, T-shirt or sweater. Hemlines can be of different lengths and the type of collar and whether or not there is pleating are also variables in the design.

In British English, the term jumper describes what is called a sweater in American English. Also, in more formal British usage, a distinction is made between a pinafore dress and a pinafore. The latter, though a related garment, has an open back and is worn as an apron. In American English, pinafore always refers to an apron.

A sweater is a piece of clothing worn on the upper body to keep the person warm. Sweaters are usually knitted or crocheted. Other names for sweaters are pullover, jersey, or jumper. Sweaters that open in the front are often called cardigans. They are named after James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, a British general during the Crimean War, who led the famous charge of the Light Brigade. Sweaters without sleeves are often called vests. Sweaters can be worn all year long for comfort and warmth.