Monday, January 25, 2021

Wire Wrapped Jewelry

Wire Wrapped Jewelry 

Wire wrapping is one of the oldest techniques for making handmade jewelry. This technique is done with jewelry wire and findings similar to wire (for example, head-pins) to make components. Wire components are then connected to one another using mechanical techniques with no soldering or heating of the wire. Frequently, in this approach, a wire is bent into a loop or other decorative shape and then the wire is wrapped around itself to finish the wire component. This makes the loop or decorative shape permanent. The technique of wrapping wire around itself gives this craft its name of wire wrapping.


Stone Setting jewelry

Stone Setting jewelry

Without the art of stone setting, the dramatic gemstones featured in most fine jewelry would be forlorn. The irony is that, done properly, stone setting in and of itself is not the intended focus. The true goal is to present the gemstone in a way that most flatters it, without dramatizing the method in which it is secured.

Master setters are confronted with the challenge of securing diamonds and gemstones in the least invasive way. The objective when stone setting is to use the minimum amount of material necessary to secure the gem. In doing so the setter must provide maximum durability while the gemstone jewelry is being worn. You need only look at a simple engagement ring with stilted fine wire prongs to understand the importance of this art.


Repoussé and Chasing Jewelry

Repoussé and Chasing Jewelry 

Repoussé or repoussage refer to a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief. Chasing, chased work, or embossing refer to a similar technique, in which the piece is hammered on the front side, sinking the metal. The two techniques are often used in conjunction.

Many metals can be used for chasing and repoussé work, including gold, silver, copper, and alloys such as steel, bronze, and pewter.

These techniques are very ancient and have been extensively used all over the world, as they require only the simplest tools and materials, and yet allow great diversity of expression. They are also relatively economical, since there is no loss or waste of metal, which mostly retains its original size and thickness. Toolmarks are often intentionally left visible in the result.




Polishing Jewelry

Polishing Jewelry  

Polishing and buffing are finishing processes for smoothing a workpiece's surface using an abrasive and a work wheel or a leather strop. Technically polishing refers to processes that use an abrasive that is glued to the work wheel, while buffing uses a loose abrasive applied to the work wheel. Polishing is a more aggressive process while buffing is less harsh, which leads to a smoother, brighter finish. A common misconception is that a polished surface has a mirror bright finish, however most mirror bright finishes are actually buffed.

Polishing is often used to enhance the appearance of an item, prevent contamination of instruments, remove oxidation, create a reflective surface, or prevent corrosion in pipes. In metallography and metallurgy, polishing is used to create a flat, defect-free surface for examination of a metal's microstructure under a microscope. Silicon-based polishing pads or a diamond solution can be used in the polishing process. Polishing stainless steel can also increase the sanitary benefits of it.




Gold Plating

Gold Plating   

Gold plating is a method of depositing a thin layer of gold onto the surface of another metal, most often copper or silver (to make silver-gilt), by chemical or electrochemical plating. This article covers plating methods used in the modern electronics industry; for more traditional methods, often used for much larger objects, see gilding.

Types

Soft, pure gold plating is used in the semiconductor industry. The gold layer is easily soldered and wire bonded. Its Knoop hardness ranges between 60–85. The plating baths have to be kept free of contamination.

Soft, pure gold is deposited from special electrolytes. Entire printed circuit boards can be plated. This technology can be used for depositing layers suitable for wire bonding.

Bright hard gold on contacts, with Knoop hardness between 120–300 and purity of 99.7–99.9% gold. Often contains a small amount of nickel and/or cobalt; these elements interfere with die bonding, therefore the plating baths cannot be used for semiconductors.

Bright hard gold on printed circuit board tabs is deposited using lower concentration of gold in the baths. Usually contains nickel and/or cobalt as well. Edge connectors are often made by controlled-depth immersion of only the edge of the boards.

Gold plating of silver is used in the manufacture of jewelry. The thickness of gold plating on jewellery is noted in microns (or micro-meters). The microns of thickness determines how long the gold plating lasts with usage. The jewellery industry denotes different qualities of gold plating in the following terminology

Gold flashed / Gold washed - gold layer thickness less than 0.5 micron

Gold plated - gold layer thickness greater than equal to 0.5 micron

Heavy gold plated / Vermeil - gold layer thickness greater than equal to 2.5 micron

Gold plated silver jewellery can still tarnish as the silver atoms diffuse into the gold layer, causing slow gradual fading of its color and eventually causing tarnishing of the surface. This process may take months and even years, depending on the thickness of the gold layer. A barrier metal layer is used to counter this effect - these can be Nickel or Rhodium. Copper, which also migrates into gold, does so more slowly than silver. The copper is usually further plated with nickel. A gold-plated silver article is usually a silver substrate with layers of copper, nickel, and gold deposited on top of it.

















Metal Clay

Metal Clay 

Metal clay is a crafting medium consisting of very small particles of metal such as silver, gold, bronze, or copper mixed with an organic binder and water for use in making jewelry, beads and small sculptures.  Metal clay can be shaped just like any soft clay, by hand or using molds. After drying, the clay can be fired in a variety of ways such as in a kiln, with a handheld gas torch, or on a gas stove, depending on the type of clay and the metal in it. The binder burns away, leaving the pure sintered metal. Shrinkage of between 8% and 30% occurs (depending on the product used). Alloys such as bronze, sterling silver, and steel also are available.


Kazaz Jewelry

Kazaz Jewelry 

Kazaz is one of the rare and rapidly disappearing handcrafts. It is an ancient craftsmanship and found in Turkey originally. The word, “kazaz” means, the person who produces and/or sells silk yarns. Technique of weaving this beautiful jewelry uses 0.08 or 0.09 millimeter (approximately the thickness of a hair) pure gold or pure silver wire wrapped around either silk or nylon threads. This silver or gold wire becomes very strong and flexible so that it can be woven without breaking. Generally, three different thicknesses are used to make jewelry: Thin for making chains, medium thickness for earrings, and thick for pendants and bracelets. The overall thickness of these wrapped wires are between 0.3mm to 0.5mm.

This is also one of the hardest handmade jewelry technique. Kazaz jewels has their own unique style which is not compareable with another jewelry design. All of kazaz jewelry made by hand and have to be master degree to manufacture this jewelry. Kazaz silver jewels made by hand with only 1000 carat silver or 24 carat gold. A strand of 1000 carat silver or 24 carat gold having only 0.08 micron thickness (which one is same thickness as one strand of human hair) is wrapped over a very thin silk thread with the help of a spinning wheel. This process made by hand without any power tools. Hand made kazaz wire can be 3-5 mm thick and it is non-breakable.


Filigree Jewellery

Filigree Jewellery  

In jewellery, it is usually of gold and silver, made with tiny beads or twisted threads, or both in combination, soldered together or to the surface of an object of the same metal and arranged in artistic motifs. It often suggests lace and remains popular in Indian and other Asian metalwork. It was popular as well in Italian, French and Portuguese metalwork from 1660 to the late 19th century. It should not be confused with ajoure jewellery work, the ajoure technique consisting of drilling holes in objects made of sheet metal.


Engraving

Engraving  

Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it with a burin. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations; these images are also called "engravings". Engraving is one of the oldest and most important techniques in printmaking. Wood engraving is a form of relief printing and is not covered in this article.


Saturday, January 23, 2021

Enamel Jewelery

Enamel Jewelery  

Enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 °C (1,380 and 1,560 °F). The powder melts, flows, and then hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating. The word comes from the Latin vitreum, meaning "glass".

Enamel can be used on metal, glass, ceramics, stone, or any material that will withstand the fusing temperature. In technical terms fired enamelware is an integrated layered composite of glass and another material (or more glass). The term "enamel" is most often restricted to work on metal, which is the subject of this article. Essentially the same technique used with other bases is known by different terms: on glass as enamelled glass, or "painted glass", and on pottery it is called overglaze decoration, "overglaze enamels" or "enamelling". The craft is called "enamelling", the artists "enamellers" and the objects produced can be called "enamels".


Casting Jewelry

Casting Jewelry 

Jewelry casting is the process by which a wax pattern is made into a jewelry mold and then filled with molten metal or silver to create a custom piece of jewelry. ... Most jewelry that is manufactured starts off as a wax pattern. Jewelry manufacturers will take the wax pattern and use plaster to create an “invested” mold.

You can upload the file here and request a quote for both pattern production and casting services. If multiple pieces are cast, a single flask fee of $25 is applicable for orders up to 4-6 pieces depending on size.

Gold casting is a part of the jewelry creation process. It allows designers and jewelry stores to take an idea or design, create a mold, and eventually end up with a physical reproduction of the final product. The gold casting process involves the following steps: Wax model and casting preparation.


Tie chain

Tie chain 

A tie chain is a neckwear-controlling device. Similar to tie clips and tie bars, it is used to hold in place a tie to the underlying shirt front, ensuring that the tie hangs straight. This accessory is composed of two parts, a durable clip and a chain (typically of gold or silver). The clip attaches to a button or attaches to the placket on the shirt and when properly worn is covered entirely by the tie. The chain is then left to rest across the necktie, keeping the tie secure.


Tiara

Tiara 

A tiara is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women. It is worn during formal occasions, particularly if the dress code is white tie.

Tiaras made of plastic, rhinestones, Swarovski crystals, or any other non-precious material are considered costume jewelry. They are worn by women on special occasions such as homecoming or prom and at their quinceañera (fifteenth birthday) or wedding. They are also worn by the winners of beauty pageants and girls dressing up as Disney princesses.




Pendant

Pendant  

A pendant is a loose-hanging piece of jewellery, generally attached by a small loop to a necklace, which may be known as a "pendant necklace". A pendant earring is an earring with a piece hanging down. Its name stems from the Latin word pendere and Old French word pendr, both of which translate to "to hang down". In modern French, pendant is the gerund form of pendre (" to hang") and also means "during". The extent to which the design of a pendant can be incorporated into an overall necklace makes it not always accurate to treat them as separate items.


Pectoral

Pectoral  

The pectorals of ancient Egypt were a form of jewelry, often represented as a brooch. These were mostly worn by richer people and the pharaoh.

One type is attached with a nah necklace, meant to be suspended from the neck but to lie upon the breast. Statuary from the Old Kingdom onwards shows this form.

A later form was attached as a brooch, with the thematic, iconographic function and statement outweighing its actual use as a piece of jewellery for adornment. The thematic statements were typically about the pharaoh or statements of ancient Egyptian mythology and culture. They are usually of gold with cloisonné inlays of gemstones.


Necklace

Necklace  

A necklace is an article of jewellery that is worn around the neck. Necklaces may have been one of the earliest types of adornment worn by humans.They often serve ceremonial, religious, magical, or funerary purposes and are also used as symbols of wealth and status, given that they are commonly made of precious metals and stones.

The main component of a necklace is the band, chain, or cord that wraps around the neck. These are most often rendered in precious metals such as gold, silver, and platinum. Necklaces often have additional attachments suspended or inset into the necklace itself. These attachments typically include pendants, lockets, amulets, crosses, and precious and semi-precious materials such as diamond, pearls, rubies, emeralds, garnets, and sapphires. They are made with many different type of materials and are used for many things and sometimes classed as clothing.




Friday, January 22, 2021

Lapel Pin

Lapel Pin  

A lapel pin, also known as an enamel pin is a small pin worn on clothing, often on the lapel of a jacket, attached to a bag, or displayed on a piece of fabric. Lapel pins can be ornamental or can indicate the wearer's affiliation with an organization or cause. Before the popularity of wearing lapel pins, boutonnières were worn.

Pin design starts off very similar to animation. Everything is hand drawn with a blue line. It is done either digitally or on paper with a light-box to plan out all the elements and artwork that make up the design. Once the design is approved, it is inked, colored, and placed on a mechanical sheet, which is like a blueprint for the pin, with appropriate measurements and call-outs for manufacturing the parts.


Ferronnière

Ferronnière  

 A ferronnière is a style of headband that encircles the wearer's forehead, usually with a small jewel suspended in the centre. The original form of the headband was worn in late fifteenth-century Italy, and was rechristened a ferronnière at the time of its revival in the second quarter of the nineteenth century for both day and (more frequently) formal and evening wear.

The original ornament that later became called a ferronnière was popular in 15th-century Italy, where it could be made from metal or jewels.






Crown

Crown 


A crown is a traditional form of head adornment, or hat, worn by monarchs as a symbol of their power and dignity. A crown is often, by extension, a symbol of the monarch's government or items endorsed by it. The word itself is used, particularly in Commonwealth countries, as an abstract name for the monarchy itself, as distinct from the individual who inhabits it . A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. 


Bolo Tie

 Bolo Tie  

A bolo tie is a type of necktie consisting of a piece of cord or braided leather with decorative metal tips secured with an ornamental clasp or slide.

Bolos can be made using flat objects such as ladies' pins, coins, polished stones, bottle openers, or refrigerator magnets. Cords of leather and cordage stock, clips, and tips are widely available from jewelry supply firms.



Bindi

Bindi  

The mark is known as a bindi. And it's a Hindu tradition that dates to the third and fourth centuries. The bindi is traditionally worn by women for religious purposes or to indicate that they're married. But today the bindi has also become popular among women of all ages, as a beauty mark.

Traditionally, the area between the eyebrows (where the bindi is placed) is said to be the sixth chakra, ajna, the seat of "concealed wisdom". The bindi is said to retain energy and strengthen concentration. The bindi also represents the third eye. 

Black color was used to denote service class. These four Varna used four different colors of Bindis/Tilak, in earlier times. When it comes to women, they usually wore a Red Kumkum Bindi, if they are married. An unmarried girl usually wore no Bindi, but if she does, she used a black one.

In South Asia, bindis have a rich, complex history. Traditionally, married Hindu women have worn it to proclaim their marital status. According to Hindu beliefs, the forehead is considered the third eye and it keeps bad luck away. In Yoga, it's a central focus point for meditation.



Belt buckle

Belt buckle  

A belt buckle is a buckle, a clasp for fastening two ends, such as of straps or a belt, in which a device attached to one of the ends is fitted or coupled to the other. The word enters Middle English via Old French and the Latin buccula or "cheek-strap," as for a helmet. Belt buckles and other fixtures are used on a variety of belts, including cingula, baltea, baldrics and later waist-belts.



Barrette

Barrette  

A barrette  also known as a hair clasp clip, or slide, is a clasp for holding hair in place. They are often made from metal or plastic and sometimes feature decorative fabric. In one type of barrette, a clasp is used to secure the barrette in place; the clasp opens when the two metal pieces at either side are pressed together.

Barrettes are worn in several different ways partly according to their size, with small ones often used at the front and large ones in the back to hold more hair. They are used to keep hair out of the eyes, or to secure a bun, French twist, or ponytail. Short metal "clip" barrettes are sometimes used to pull back front pieces of hair. Barrettes are also sometimes used purely for decorative purposes.

Larger barrettes—as long as 3–4 in (8–10 cm)—are designed to pull back longer hair or a large amount of hair and are usually worn at the back of the head, often "tails up". If the intent is to pull hair back, the length of the barrette is not the only consideration; the width of the barrette also indicates approximately how much hair can be secured by it.





Foilbacks jewellery

Foilbacks jewellery  

Foilbacks, in vintage jewellery, is the practice of inserting metal foil behind gemstones or faux gemstones to enhance their sparkle and reflective properties. When this foil darkens or peels, these gemstones are often considered dead or lacking in sparkle. Modern jewelers seldom use foiling behind actual gemstones, but faux gems are made in a similar fashion even today.


Estate Jewelry

Estate Jewelry  

Estate Jewelry describes pieces that were previously owned, it sounds more elegant than used or old jewelry. Both vintage and antique are types of estate jewellery. Antique Jewelry is typically at least 100 years old but often Art Deco jewels crafted during the 1920's to 1930's are included.

While experts agree that buying and selling period jewelry will almost never make an investor rich in a short time, they nonetheless recommend jewelry as a safe store of value. A good jewel will always maintain its value, which in turn will increase in time.

Estate jewelry in a formal sense, is jewelry and often timepieces which are part of the 'estate' of a deceased person. More specifically, the term refers to second-hand or pre-owned jewelry, with the 'estate' appellation signifying that the item is antique, vintage or an otherwise considered a significant or important piece.



Art Jewelry

Art Jewelry  

Art jewelry is one of the names given to jewelry created by studio craftspeople. As the name suggests, art jewelry emphasizes creative expression and design, and is characterized by the use of a variety of materials, often commonplace or of low economic value. In this sense, it forms a counterbalance to the use of "precious materials" (such as gold, silver and gemstones) in conventional or fine jewelry, where the value of the object is tied to the value of the materials from which it is made. Art jewelry is related to studio craft in other media such as glass, wood, plastics and clay; it shares beliefs and values, education and training, circumstances of production, and networks of distribution and publicity with the wider field of studio craft. Art jewelry also has links to fine art and design.


Pendant

Pendant  

A pendant is a loose-hanging piece of jewellery, generally attached by a small loop to a necklace, which may be known as a "pendant necklace". A pendant earring is an earring with a piece hanging down. Its name stems from the Latin word pendere and Old French word pendr, both of which translate to "to hang down". In modern French, pendant is the gerund form of pendre (" to hang") and also means "during". The extent to which the design of a pendant can be incorporated into an overall necklace makes it not always accurate to treat them as separate items.


Medal

Medal 

A medal or medallion is a small portable artistic object, a thin disc, normally of metal, carrying a design, usually on both sides. They typically have a commemorative purpose of some kind, and many are given as awards. They may be intended to be worn, suspended from clothing or jewellery in some way. They may be struck like a coin by dies or die-cast in a mould.


Locket

Locket  

A locket is a pendant that opens to reveal a space used for storing a photograph or other small item such as a lock of hair. Lockets are usually given to loved ones on holidays such as Valentine's Day and occasions such as christenings, weddings and, most noticeably during the Victorian Age, funerals. Historically, they often opened to reveal a portrait miniature.

Lockets are generally worn on chains around the neck and often hold a photo of the person who gave the locket, or they could form part of a charm bracelet. They come in many shapes such as ovals, hearts and circles and are usually made of precious metals such as gold or silver befitting their status as decorative jewellery.

Lockets usually hold only one or two photographs, but some specially made lockets can hold up to eight. Some lockets have been fashioned as 'spinner' lockets, where the bail that attaches to the necklace chain is attached but not fixed to the locket itself which is free to spin. This was a common style in the Victorian Age. Around 1860 memento lockets started to replace mourning rings as the preferred style of mourning jewellery.

Keepsake lockets can also be made with a glass pane at the front so that what is inside can be seen without opening the locket. Such lockets are generally used for items like locks of hair which could fall out and become lost if the locket were repeatedly opened, whereas photograph lockets are generally enclosed on all sides and the photographs are secured by pieces of clear plastic.




Thursday, January 21, 2021

Finding Jewellery

Finding Jewellery   

The term “jewelry findings” refers to jewelry-making components that aren't beads, gemstones or stringing materials. Findings are the bits and bobs that help you piece your jewelry together. Examples of findings include bails, clasps, jump rings, connectors or head and eye pins.

Findings are the bits and bobs that help you piece your jewelry together. While a pendant is an ornament that can be used to highlight your accessories.

List of findings.

Clasps to complete necklaces and bracelets.

Earwires to link an earring to the wearer's ear.

Ring blanks for making finger rings.

Bails, metal loops, and jump rings, for completing jewellery. Jump rings can be used by themselves for chains

Pin stems and brooch assemblies.

Tuxedo stud findings, letters of the alphabet, cluster settings, metal beads and balls.

Plastic, fabric or metal stringing material for threading beads.


Wednesday, January 20, 2021

Cameo Jewellery

Cameo Jewellery  

A cameo is a material that is carved with a raised relief that often depicts a profile of a face or a mythical scene. Cameos are commonly made out of shell, coral, stone, lava, or glass. ... Cameo jewelry has varying quality factors including the intricacy of the carving to the quality of the setting.

Some of these can be very large, carved into bowls, or vases and take many months to complete. Prices are based on how long each carving takes so the price range can from $2000 to over $35000.

Examine the back- hold the cameo face down and run your finger up and down the back. If the cameo is made from shell you should feel a concave or curve. The curve might be slight, but this is a good sign the cameo was carved from real shell. Plastic cameos will have a flat surface.

Material. The finest, more expensive cameos are those made from semi-precious and stone materials. Agate is one of the most popular since it's difficult to carve and requires significantly more talent to produce. Those made of stones will outlast the less expensive recreations made from shells or plastic.


Thumb Ring

Thumb Ring  

A thumb ring is a piece of equipment designed to protect the thumb during archery. This is a ring of leather, stone, horn, wood, bone, antler, ivory, metal, ceramics, plastic, or glass which fits over the end of the thumb, coming to rest at the outer edge of the outer joint. Typically a flat area extends from the ring to protect the pad of the thumb from the bowstring; this may be supplemented by a leather extension.

When drawing a bow using a thumb draw, the thumb is hooked around the bowstring just beneath the arrow and its grip reinforced with the first (sometimes second) finger. The bowstring rests against the inner pad of the archer's thumb and the thumb ring protects the skin. The bowstring rests against the flat of the ring when the bow is drawn. 


Signet rings

Signet rings  

Signet rings have been a practical part of men’s fashion for thousands of years. For wealthy and important men, a signet ring was a powerful tool akin to a signature. A signet ring is set apart from other rings based on an engraved or raised symbol, series of words or letters, or image on the top half of the ring that was representative of its wearer in some way. It could have been a name, initials, job title, rank, organization or family crest.

For thousands of years, men of influence have been donning a wearable form of identification and communication known as the signet ring. Today, it’s simply an attractive accessory that any man can wear. 

Puzzle jewelry

Puzzle jewelry 

A piece of puzzle jewelry is a puzzle which can be worn by a person as jewelry.Usually these puzzles are fully mechanically functional and hence serve two purposes at once. Of course in order to be a nice piece of wearable jewelry it has to have a good design, professional finish and relatively small size.


Puzzle ring

 Puzzle ring  

A puzzle ring is a jewelry ring made up of multiple interconnected bands, which is a type of mechanical puzzle most likely developed as an elaboration of the European gimmal ring.

The puzzle ring is also sometimes called a "Turkish wedding ring" or "harem ring." According to popular legend, the ring would be given by the husband as a wedding ring, because if the wife removed it (presumably to commit adultery), the bands of the ring would fall apart, and she would be unable to reassemble it before its absence would be noticed. However, a puzzle ring can be easily removed without the bands falling apart.




Prayer jewelry

Prayer jewelry  

Prayer beads are used by members of various religious traditions. Faith to mark the repetitions of prayers, chants or devotions.Beads are among the earliest human ornaments and ostrich shell beads in Africa date to 10,000 BC. Over the centuries various cultures have made beads from a variety of materials from stone and shells to clay.Since the beads are fingered in an automatic manner, they allow the user to keep track of how many prayers have been said with a minimal amount of conscious effort, which in turn allows greater attention to the prayer itself.



Medical alert jewelry

Medical alert jewelry 

A medical identification tag is a small emblem or tag worn on a bracelet, neck chain, or on the clothing bearing a message that the wearer has an important medical condition that might require immediate attention. The tag is often made out of stainless steel or sterling silver. The intention is to alert a paramedic, physician, emergency department personnel or other first responders (emergency medical services, community first responder, Emergency medical responder) of the condition even if the wearer is not conscious enough, old enough, or too injured to explain. A wallet card with the same information may be used instead of or along with a tag, and a stick-on medical ID tag may be added or used alone.


Celibacy vow ring

Celibacy vow ring  

Celibacy is a voluntary vow of sexual abstinence. In some cases, it can also be a promise to remain unmarried. ... Although celibacy is usually associated with religion, there are a number of reasons why someone might choose to remain celibate.


Amulet

Amulet 

An amulet, also known as a good luck charm, is an object believed to confer protection upon its possessor. The word "amulet" comes from the Latin word amuletum, which Pliny's Natural History describes as "an object that protects a person from trouble". Anything can function as an amulet; items commonly so used include gems, statues, coins, drawings, plant parts, animal parts, and written words.



Chatelaine

Chatelaine 

A chatelaine is a decorative belt hook or clasp worn at the waist with a series of chains suspended from it. Each chain is mounted with useful household appendages such as scissors, thimbles, watches, keys, vinaigrette, and household seals.

The chatelaine was also used as a woman's keychain in the 19th century to show the status of women in a household. The woman with the keys to all the many desks, chest of drawers, food hampers, pantries, storage containers, and many other locked cabinets was "the woman of the household". As such, she was the one who would direct the servants, housemaids, cooks and delivery servicemen and would open or lock the access to the valuables of the house, possessing total authority over who had access to what. Frequently, this hostess was the senior woman of the house. When a woman married and moved into her father-in-law's house, her husband's mother would usually hold on to the keys. However, if the mother became a widow, the keys and their responsibilities and status were often passed to the oldest son's wife. Younger women and daughters in the house often wanted the appearance of this responsibility, and would often wear decorative chatelaines with a variety of small objects in the place of keys, especially bright and glittering objects that could be used to start a conversation.In the case of the absence of a woman of the house, the controller of the keys was often a hired housekeeper.




Brooch

Brooch  

A brooch somewhat frequently broach is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to fasten them together. It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold or some other material. Brooches are frequently decorated with enamel or with gemstones and may be solely for ornament or serve a practical function as a clothes fastener. The earliest known brooches are from the Bronze Age. As fashions in brooches changed rather quickly, they are important chronological indicators. Many of the ancient European brooches found in archaeology are usually referred to by the Latin term fibula.

The early modern period of jewellery extended from 1500 to 1800. Global exploration and colonization brought new prosperity to Europe and Great Britain along with new sources of diamonds, gems, pearls, and precious metals. The rapid changes in clothing fashion during this era generated similar changes in jewellery styles. The demand for new jewellery resulted in the deconstruction and melting down of many old jewellery pieces to create new jewellery. Because of this, there are very few surviving jewellery pieces from this era. The primary jewellery styles during this time period .





Breastplate

Breastplate 

A breastplate is a piece of riding equipment, used to keep the saddle or harness on a horse from sliding back. It not only secures the saddle, but still allows a horse's big shoulder's to move and gives the rider something to hold onto. Sometimes horses need them specifically for a job they do.

In medieval weaponry, the breastplate is the front portion of plate armour covering the torso.
The priestly breastplate was a sacred breastplate worn by the High Priest of the Israelites, according to the Book of Exodus. In the biblical account, the breastplate is sometimes termed the breastplate of judgment, because the Urim and Thummim were placed within it.


Body Piercing Jewellery

Body Piercing Jewellery   

Body piercing jewelry is jewelry manufactured specifically for use in body piercing. The jewelry involved in the art of body piercing comes in a wide variety of shapes and sizes in order to best fit the pierced site. Jewelry may be worn for fashion, cultural tradition, religious beliefs, personal symbolism, and many other reasons.

Originally, hardly any other jewelry than circular earrings were used in modern Western body piercing. As the body piercing became more of a fashion, a vast amount of specially crafted jewelry became available to the public. Common types of body jewelry that are sold often in modern days include barbells, captive bead rings, labrets, navel rings, plugs, spirals, and various other types of piercing jewelry. Materials used for production have grown from traditional gold and silver to widespread use of surgical steel as well as titanium, niobium, glass, several kinds of plastics (PTFE, tygon, bioplast, nylon). Wood, horn, amber, stone, bamboo, silicone, fossilized ivories, tusks, bones, and porcelain can also be used to craft body piercing jewelry. With so many different materials being used, body piercing jewelry can be as modest or as adventurous as the wearer pleases. Less conservative piercings and piercing jewelry is becoming more socially acceptable.


Wedding Ring

Wedding Ring  

A wedding ring or wedding band is a finger ring that indicates that its wearer is married. It is usually forged from metal, and traditionally is forged of gold or another precious metal.

Depending on the culture, a wedding ring is typically worn on the base of the left or right ring finger; if the wearer is left handed often it will go onto the right hand. Many spouses wear their wedding rings day and night, causing an indentation in the skin that is visible even when the ring is removed.

In several traditions, the best man or maid of honor has the duty of keeping track of a couple's wedding rings and to produce them at the symbolic moment of the giving and receiving of the rings during the traditional marriage ceremony. In more elaborate weddings, a ring bearer (who is often part of the family of the bride or groom) may assist in the ceremonial parading of the rings into the ceremony, sometimes on a special cushion.







Pre-Engagement Ring

 Pre-Engagement Ring  

A pre-engagement ring is a ring given as a gift to a romantic partner to signify a commitment to a monogamous relationship, often as a precursor to an engagement ring. A heterosexual couple typically has the man presenting a ring or both exchanging rings, though women may present one as well. They may be worn on any finger due to not being as serious as an engagement ring, though they are sometimes worn on a necklace. These rings are typically purchased by those who are too young to get engaged to their partner or by a partner or partners who do not want to rush into marriage. While similar concepts have been employed in the past, the concept of pre-engagement rings came into prominence starting in the 1970s. It gained further prominence in the late 2000s when celebrities began to use pre-engagement rings .

Designs of pre-engagement rings may vary, featuring hearts, an entangled design, and other designs. However, any design can be used for a pre-engagement ring. The bands may be made of a variety of materials, including titanium, silver, and gold. Less common inexpensive materials may be used, such as wood, glass, ceramic, bone, and plastic. Birthstones are also commonly used. The ring or rings may be engraved with one or both of the names of those in the relationship, and potentially their nickname.


Promise Ring

Promise Ring 

A promise ring signifies a promise to take the relationship seriously. It also symbolizes hope for the relationship's future development. It does not promise marriage, however, like engagement rings do.

A promise ring is a ring given from one person to another in a romantic relationship to signify their fidelity and commitment, often (but not always) preceding an engagement.

You and your significant other should have been dating at least a year, if not longer, before a promise ring becomes an appropriate gift. A promise ring might be ideal if a proper engagement ring isn't currently within your budget.


Navaratna Ring

Navaratna Ring  

Navaratna is a Sanskrit compound word meaning "nine gems" or "ratnas". Jewellery created in this style has important cultural significance in across many southern, and south-eastern Asian cultures as a symbol of wealth, status, and also as having other claimed talismanic benefits to health and wellbeing. The setting of the stones is believed to hold mystical powers, tied to astrology, mythology and intrinsically linked to the Indian religions of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The ancient origin of the significance behind the nine gems has proved impossible to trace but is inherently tied to mythological concepts around cosmology and astrology and the "Navagrahas", or "nine celestial gods".

The stones are often set within gold or silver jewellery with a ruby as the centrepiece representing the Sun. Each additional stone around the ruby then represents another celestial body within the solar system, or a node, in addition to representing metaphysical concepts of good fortune, and the characteristics and personalities of religious figures. For traditional purposes and the purported health benefits, the arrangement of the stones and their position to the body is of particular significance, as is the quality of the gemstones.





Engagement Ring

Engagement Ring   

An engagement ring is a ring indicating that the person wearing it is engaged to be married, especially in Western cultures. A ring is presented as an engagement gift by a partner to their prospective spouse when they propose marriage or directly after a marriage proposal is accepted. It represents a formal agreement to future marriage. In Western countries, engagement rings are worn mostly by women, and rings can feature diamonds or other gemstones. The neologism "mangagement ring" is sometimes used for an engagement ring worn by men. In some cultures, men and women wear matching rings, and engagement rings may also be used as wedding rings. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the ring is customarily worn on the left hand ring finger, but customs vary considerably elsewhere across the world.

Gold (Available in Yellow Gold, White Gold and Rose Gold) and platinum are preferred for engagement rings, but common metal types such as titanium, silver, and stainless steel are also used for engagement rings.This allows for the bride-to-be to exert her own individual style into the ring in a simple manner.




Class Ring

Class Ring   

In the United States, a class ring (also known as a graduation, graduate, senior, or grad ring) is a ring worn by students and alumni to commemorate their graduation, generally for a high school, college, or university.

Today class rings can be customized, from the material and style that the ring is made of to the color and cut of the gem in the center. There is a wide selection of emblems, pictures, and words that can be added to the sides of the rings and even inside the center gem.

The "Complete Book of Etiquette" by Amy Vanderbilt indicates the following protocol for wearing of a class ring. For as long as the wearer is in school, the insignia should face the wearer to remind him/her of the goal of graduation. Upon graduation, the class ring gains the status of a "badge of honor" similar to a diploma, with the effect that graduation entitles the wearer to display the insignia facing outward so that it faces other viewers. An additional justification for this practice is the rationale that the ring also symbolizes the graduate themself During the wearer's time in school, they focus on self-development and goals specific to the insular academic environment; upon graduation, the wearer enters the wider world and puts what they have learned to work in shaping it.



Championship Ring

Championship Ring  

A championship ring or premiership ring is a ring presented to members of winning teams in North American professional sports leagues and college tournaments.

Championship rings are unique to the North American sports. Since only one championship trophy is awarded by the league to the winning team, championship rings are distributed as a collectible memento for the actual players and team officials to keep for themselves to symbolize the victory. Winners' medals (and runners-up medals) are not awarded in North American professional sports, in contrast to Olympic team sports and European club association football tournaments such as the Premier League and UEFA Champions League. Championship rings are distributed by and paid for by the winning team (although some leagues may partially subsidize the cost), in contrast to medals which are awarded by the league or competition governing body.

Championship rings are typically made of yellow or white gold with diamonds and other precious stones. They usually include the team name, team logo, and the championship number .